One manifestation of human progress is the transformation from nature to artificial nature, through which technology plays the important roles of driving force. However, the development of technology, especially the development of modern technology, brings all types ofs to human being as it pushes forward the formation and progress of artificial nature as well as promote the living conditions. These s are derived from every steps of technological process and pose a threat to the daily life and living of human beings. Suggestions on how to avoid and overcome such risks and analyze its origin from the perspective of of technology is needed.Based on the theory of artificial nature, theory of technological process and relevant theories about risks, this paper focuses on the essence, origin and classification of risk during the transformation process from nature to artificial nature and analyzes them. The paper analyzes the origin of all risks have been illustrated and classifies ten common risks in practice. Further more, the paper explores the theoretical foundations and means which used to avoid and overcome risks from the perspective of theory of of technology and theory of artificial nature. In special, the solutions to different types of risks have been introduced. In the analysis of three kinds of risks, the analytical method, strategy and analytical process have been introduced taken the cases of Wenchuan earthquake, SARS, influenza A (H1N1) and global crisis of 2008.In addition, the origin and demonstration of risks as well as the basis and means for risks avoidance have also been discussed.This article holds that to avoid and overcome the risk, we should at first start from the technology itself, find the root causes of the risk and give the right solution. At the same time, we should also explore the links between micro-technology nodes on the process of macro-technology combined with the actual situation of different regions. The grasp of the dynamics characteristics of technology, the attribute of technology, should be considered and paid attention to. In addition, comprehensive and effective technical assessment and forecast should be carried out, so to achieve optimally resolved of riskt.
Tag Archive: Technology
The Analysis on Risk in the Process of Nature Transferring to Artificial Nature (Education Papers posted on November 7th, 2014 )
A Study of William Gibson’s Matrix Trilogy in the Light of Cyborg Theory (Education Papers posted on November 5th, 2014 )
With the progress of science and technology, great changes have taken place in people’s life and even on themselves, and the science fictions that tend to predict the future tendency of society begin to draw more and more people’s attention. Cyberpunk is a contemporary science fiction genre noted for its focus on‘high tech and low life’. It gives prominence to advanced science, such as information technology and cybernetics. William Gibson, one of the primary representatives of, is called father of Cyberpunk movement because of his great contribution in successfully creating the conception of cyberspace, an informationized virtual online world. William Gibson’s‘Sprawl Trilogy’are famous early novels which can be seen as prominent examples of the cyberpunk style and theme. With technology as one of its most distinctive features, cyberpunk novels reveal the changes of human body and the expansion of space brought about by the application of high-tech, which corresponds closely with Haraway’s cyborg theory. Donna Haraway is a famous theorist who has had a deep study of the body, gender and identity issues caused by new technology. Donna Haraway defines” ”as”a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of reality as well as a creature of fiction.”She also emphasizes that the cyborg myth is about , potent fusions, and dangerous possibilities. This paper researches the people’s changes brought about by high-tech in William Gibson’s‘Sprawl Trilogy’in the light of Haraway’s theory.This paper is constituted by the introduction, the body and the conclusion.In the part of introduction, the focus will be on the brief introduction of William Gibson and his‘Sprawl Trilogy’, Haraway’s cyborg theory, the previous studies on Gibson’s‘Sprawl Trilogy’, the research method and the research purpose.The main body of this paper consists of three chapters. In the first chapter, the exterior reform of human body brought about by the application of high-tech is analyzed. The author first adduces some cyborg images that are exteriorly reformed in Gibson’s novels and divided them into three kinds, the combination of man and , aids, and AI. The author then points out that these images are also cyborgs that are hybrids of machine and organism according to Haraway’s theory, and specifies that their generation manifests the boundary breakdown between organism and machine.In the second chapter, this paper studies the inner changes of human body of the characters in Gibson’s‘Sprawl Trilogy’, that is, the genetically modified people. In addition to the cyborgs in Gibson’s novels, there are also genetically modified characters. The author exhibits this kind of innerly changed cyborgs from two aspects, the genetically modified men and clone men. These kinds of creatures possess both the features of natural men and artificial men, while you can’t decide definitely which kind they belong to. These creatures of and potent fusions are cyborgs. The author then demonstrates that the innerly changed creatures possess the feature of the transgressed boundaries between natural and artificial.In the third chapter, the paper gives a careful analysis of the spatial turning. The cyberspace, another space besides people’s living space, is a virtual world existed in networks. As cyberspace is the most significant feature in Gibson’s novels, the author then gives a detailed description of the generation and features of cyberspace. Through the analyzing of the cyberspace in Gibson’s novels, the author then discusses that the generation of cyberspace has obviously blurred the boundary between virtual and reality.In the part of conclusion, this paper points out that William Gibson succeeds in shaping various kinds of cyborg images which challenges the dualisms because of their features of transgressed boundaries and potent fusions. Gibson in his novels not only predicts a highly advanced world full of cyborgs but also attempts to arouse people’s reflection on the influences of science and technology.
was a famous British agnostic philosopher and ethicist in the 18th century, and also was well known as a historian and economist. He was one of the most important people during the Enlightenment in Scottish and in the history of Western . Because of ’s outstanding contribution to , the focus of many previous studies of was his philosophy, especially epistemology, rather than his view of technology. In fact, Hume also had his own amazing insights on ethics, religion, philosophy of technology and other fields. In the early time of modern society, where Hume lived, which had a set of great and important changes, the understanding of technology confronted the change from tradition to modern. The contradictions, which connected with each other in Hume’s ideological system, showed several realistic conflicts. In particular, the reforms of politics, economy and culture, the optimistic utilitarianism of controlling and conquering nature through technological ways advocated during the Renaissance and, the thoughts of subject-object dichotomy based on man and nature from Bacon, Locke and Hobbes all had a significant impact on Hume’s view of technology, especially the nature and role of technology.Both the understanding of technology in ancient Greece and the prototype of modern philosophy of technology can be discovered in Hume’s view of technology. Therefore, the study of Hume’s view of technology is an enormous task which has pretty good significance in theory and reality. This findings demonstrate that the internal reasons and contradictions of generation and evolution of Philosophy of during certain historical period. And it not only enriches the research methods, but promotes the diversification of the current studies in Philosophy of . In the meanwhile, it helps to form a better understanding of technology.In this paper, we present a method which combines cases study with system study to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of Hume’s view of . This approach adheres to the principle of combining main points with non-main points, combining historicism with objectivist. As a typical of agnostic, Hume denied the knowability of the nature and law of objective things. And as a world-known empiricist, he stressed the importance of experience, and acknowledged that the human activities were legitimate within experience, and technology is reasonable within empiricism, and he emphasized that technology derived from experience rather than innate sense. Hume argued from the perspective of logical positivism that technology is the unity of the means and ends, also is the tool for the pursuit of human happiness. On the relationship between technology and nature, he believed that artifacts were essentially different from natural things and, artifacts could not achieve the perfection of the natural. In the standpoint of utilitarian, technology played a very important role in national economy, culture and politics. It can combine nation, commercial trade, manufacturing and humanity with each other perfectly together. Hume also had the attitude worried about technology while he praised its huge functions. So his attitude toward technology is hesitant rather than purely utilitarian. Hume’s view of technology is unique and distinctive in the history of the industrial development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Hume’s view of technology, revealing its rich content and he important value of nexus role in the history of philosophy.
The analysis on the ecological character of technology may avoid one-sided understanding of technology. These one-sided understandings of technology and non-rational application have a serious impact on the coordinated development between man and nature. Faced with this problem, we need to introduce ecological theory and system theory into the analysis of technology. In order we analyze and construct technical system by simulating sophisticated construction and harmonious functions of natural ecosystems to avoid the conflict between technical application and mechanism of the natural ecosystem.The analysis on the ecological character of technology is to use the method that draw an analogy between natural system and technical system to analyze the ecological character of technology. ecosystem is a very broad inclusive concept; it is not only limited to natural ecological systems, but also includingecosystem and technology ecosystem which is more broad understanding of it. In the ecosystem,technology is in the changing process, and always interact with the surrounding politics, economy, and culture to build ecosystem together, which is similar to the life in the natural ecosystem. exist in the form of the system, it is the same as the natural ecosystems that is open, holistic, hierarchical, self-organizing system. In addition, the technology itself is in the concrescence, the cycle of life about technology to create the technical ecosystem. There is diversity of “technical species”in the technical ecosystem. These “technical species” interact with the surrounding environment. This interaction is similar to the mechanism of evolution, and symbiotic mechanism, the mechanism of genetic variation in the natural ecosystem .These mechanism make the Re-cycle mechanism come true.For analyzing on the ecological character of technology, it is necessary to study the various components of technology and the relations between technology and technical environment from the systematic, the integrated perspective. We should regard the functioning of natural ecosystems as an important source of guiding technological ecological research. Humankinds need to turn their own technological view to an ecological technological view gradually, in order to achieve the transformation from technologies to ecological technologies.
Course assessment practices and student learning strategies in online college courses (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
This study explored assessment practices in online courses and the relationship between assessment and student learning strategies. Assessment practices are important in determining what kind of learning occurs in a course, and online learning environments by their very nature lend themselves towards different assessment practices. However, little is known about online assessment practices or their influence on student learning strategies. The study used a mixed-method, two-phase design. In Phase I, 60 online community college courses were sampled across disciplines. Instructor and student surveys and course observations were used to describe the status of course assessment practices and student learning strategies and explore which assessment practices relate to which learning strategies. In Phase II, follow up qualitative investigations of nine courses explored how certain assessment practices influence critical thinking strategies. The assessment practices in these online courses appear to match in many areas what is considered best practice in summative and formative assessment. Using multiple assessments and methods, grading student learning over time, and providing frequent and individualized feedback to students are beneficial practices. Both students and instructors seem to focus their efforts on elaboration, critical thinking, and self-regulation strategies, more than rehearsal and organization strategies. However, there are potential areas for improvement, such as using multiple assessors more effectively, adding only an appropriate number of assignments, and ensuring students utilize the frequent feedback they receive. Quantitative and qualitative data both indicated that discussions, written assignments, and papers were positively related to critical thinking strategy use whereas final/midterms and non-graded assignments were negatively related. Assignments that were successful in encouraging critical thinking had three areas in common: providing explicit intent to promote critical thinking, allowing time for reflective thinking, and using appropriate instructor guidance. In online discussions that promoted critical thinking, instructor postings were less frequent, more neutral, and used provoking questions. Knowledge retention multiple-choice questions were least useful for understanding student learning and played a formative instead of summative role. This study suggests that assessment methods are most important in determining the type of learning occurring and grading opportunities are ideal teachable moments in online courses.
The impact of teacher self efficacy and attitudes toward classroom computers(s) on the use of classroom technology (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
This study focused on examining the integration of computers) into classrooms of schools in an urban school district. Teachers in the district had access to a laptop or desktop computers) for use in their classrooms. Teachers also had access to remote Internet access dial up) and web-based professional development at home or at school. Three instruments were used in this study: TeachersAttitudes, developed specifically for this study, Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale-Short Form Tschannen-Moran & Wollfolk, Hoy), and a demographic survey developed specifically for this study. Results of this study provided support that teacher efficacy was significantly related to teachers attitudes toward computers) for best practices, usefulness, and computer efficacy. The negative relationships between teacher efficacy and computer anxiety support the contention that teachers who had higher levels of confidence were less anxious about using computers) in their teaching practice. Teachers who lacked sufficient confidence in using computers) in their work were likely to avoid them altogether. The positive relationships between teacher efficacy and computer efficacy support the lack of anxiety. Perhaps computers) have been common in the classroom and teachers may be receiving sufficient training to encourage them to be used effectively. The teachers in the present study indicated that they used computers) for a variety of classroom tasks e.g., lesson planning, drill and practice, grading, , classroom and presentations) and were familiar with sever types of productivity software word processing, grade books, educational games, presentations, etc.). Teachers who recognize the value of computer use in their classroom are more likely to have higher levels of teacher efficacy. Teachers attitudes toward computers) were not related to their self-reported skills with computers). Although this question had not been addressed in previous literature, teachers who self-reported their skills as excellent or good were thought to have more positive attitudes toward the use of computers) in their classrooms. An interesting finding was the negative relationship between teachers person use of computers) and computer anxiety. Teachers who expressed higher levels of anxiety were less likely to use computers) for personal use.
The impact of individual learner characteristics and synchronous computer-mediated communication on language production in learners of English (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
Astechnology advances rapidly in the past decades, incorporating technology into classroom teaching has been popular, especially in the area of foreign language because of its potential benefits. Among computer technology, computer mediated communication henceforth, CMC) is widely used in language classrooms for its benefits, for example, more equal participation, a less stressful learning environment, and increased output Chun, 1998； Kern, 1995； Warschauer, 1996). In addition, due to the hybrid nature of CMC, learners are allowed to have more time to process input, monitor and edit output Kelm, 1992； Warschauer, 1996) resulting in more accurate and complex language production compared to face-to-face conversation. Beauvois, 1992, 1995； Kern, 1995； Pellettieri, 2000； Sotillo, 2000； Warschauer, 1995, 1996). Several studies examined another benefits of CMC – the development of oral proficiency Abrams, 2003； Beauvois, 1998b； Payne & Whitney, 2002； Kost, 2004)； however, the results of these studies are consistent, suggesting that oral proficiency may be enhanced by synchronous online discussion. Instead of investigating whether synchronous CMC is beneficial for all students, the present study aims to investigate the extent to which the factors such as personality types, amount of participation and previous experience using chat contribute most to the development of oral skills. That is, the present study focuses on individual, affective variables that could affect the effects of CMC on spoken language development among beginning learners of English. Employing a pre and post one-group comparison design, 16 students participated in the study and their oral skills were measure by two interviews and the interviews were scored by a native speaker informant and the researcher based on the scoring rubric that was adopted from the previous study Payne & Whitney, 2002). The results of repeated measures ANOVA revealed none of factors identified in the study were statistically significant. The results, however, should be interpreted that the use of CMC in language classroom does not disservice any group of students with a specific personality type or previous experience using chat. With numerous benefits known, chatting remains a valuable pedagogical tool to promote second language learning.
Teacher participation and feedback styles during classroom synchronous computer-mediated communication in intermediate German: A multiple case study (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
This mixed design multiple case study of learners interactions explores the effects of teacher participation during third semester German in-class chatting activities. Three third-semester German courses taught by two different teachers were investigated over the course of one semester, during which the class members were asked to chat for 20 minutes per week using activities design by the researcher and adapted from the textbook. Multiple data sets were collected: teachers participation styles and feedback moves； students language learning achievement levels； students attitudes towards corrective feedback and technology； their experience with feedback and technology； and evidence in chat transcripts of errors, uptake, and error uptake. Students were administered a pre- and post-instruction achievement test on the structures taught during third semester German. In addition, they were surveyed at the beginning and the end of the semester on their attitudes and experiences with feedback and technology in the foreign language classroom. Furthermore, chat transcripts were analyzed to identify errors, corrective feedback, teacher moves, uptake, error uptake, student and teacher word count and words per minute, error rate, and target language use. In order to better understand the context of the transcripts, classroom observations were conducted once a month, and students completed a self-report form after each chat session. Informal conversations with the teachers provided additional insights. It was found that the students overwhelmingly appreciated teacher involvement and feedback, and that they saw chatting as both fun and beneficial for language learning. The corrective feedback rate was generally low, as were rates of uptake and error uptake. The two teachers were found to have different interaction and feedback styles. Furthermore, the three classes operated with differing levels of technical support during the lab sessions, which did not appear to influence the students experiences except for the amount of teacher output. Six case study subjects, namely the two students from each class who contributed the most to chat sessions, were selected for an in-depth analysis of their chat transcripts.
The impact of a multi-user virtual environment on teacher instructional time, voluntary student writing practice, and student writing achievement (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
Two major obstacles to using PBL methods in K-12 classrooms are the time it takes to design the rich learning environment and the time required for students to interact at their own pace with ill-structured problems. The focus of this study was to determine whether game-design design principles can be used to both compliment a digital PBL environment and improve student learning. Further, this study sought to determine whether such a design could allow teachers to act as a challenger of poorly developed knowledge constructs instead of as a font of directional and procedural knowledge for students. To answer these questions a digital learning environment was designed that used embedded scaffolds, nested goals, clue trails, narrative context, and explicit rules to improve student writing. This unit was part of a larger multi-user virtual environment, but was designed to be a self-contained unit that leveraged advanced technologies to establish an immersive experience for learning writing skills. The unit was designed to be two-times per week for four weeks in total length which included student training on the active role of a reporter who investigated mysteries taking place in a virtual town. The learner then composed feature stories relating their understanding of the mystery. A comparison class was recruited and the teacher was observed teaching the same content and skill standards but through more didactic methods of instruction. The results of this study showed that the treatment condition had decreases in teacher time spent answering procedural and directional questions, increases in the amount of voluntary student writing activity, and improvements in standardized achievement scores on prompts that consisted of writing tasks similar to those that students participated in during the treatment. Students engaged fully with the learning environment although several tensions emerged. These included tensions between student perceptions of teacher rules versus system rules, student play versus completion of learning tasks, and whether they should learn through the system by reading versus being told what to do. Student disabilities were also encountered during the study which placed the system under a different kind of test than it was designed for, though it successfully engaged these students as well. A final tension arose in the result of the research methods themselves, bringing home the point that a need to capture data may interfere with the learners experience, possibly reducing or improving the impact of the treatment itself.
Administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions about surveillance technology (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
Many schools have installed surveillance cameras, but little is known about the impact on the school environment as a result of the installation of surveillance technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and school administrators regarding surveillance technology as a useful tool in the educational setting. This study may inform policymakers and school leaders as they strive to achieve school goals, allocate resources, and carry out their jobs as described by law. Lastly, this research may provide more detailed information to Leadership Preparation Programs. The research questions that guided this study were: 1) What are the teachers perceptions of the impact of surveillance cameras on the school? 2) What are the school leaders perceptions of the impact of surveillance cameras on the school? 3) Is there a difference in the perceptions of teachers and school leaders of the impact of surveillance cameras on the school? The study found surveillance cameras were welcomed by the schools communities. The study has also shown that the cameras can be used as an additional tool for school administrators to maintain order inside and outside of their schools. The cameras have not only decreased discipline problems, but they have also been a deterrent to those who wish to cause problems. An additional finding was that teachers and administrators do not change their behaviors while in view of cameras and do not feel their right to privacy has been violated with the installation of cameras in the school.