Tag Archive: SocialSciences

Building “consciousness and legacies”: Integrating community, critical, and classical knowledge bases in a precalculus class (Education Papers posted on May 14th, 2014 )

Grounded in Freires 1970) notion that the purpose of Education in an unjust society is to bring about equality and justice, Critical Mathematics CM) scholars consider mathematics to be a tool to understand, critique, and change the world by deconstructing power structures that marginalize certain groups. In particular, Gutsteins 2006) framework for integrating students Community, Critical, and Classical mathematics knowledge bases 3 Cs) advocates for mathematics instruction that incorporates students informal and everyday experiences. This involves investigations into Social phenomena that draw on students perspectives and experiences to inform critical analysis, while developing mathematical power. This dissertation presents the findings from a critical ethnographic study of a veteran teacher of colors approach to integrating the 3 Cs in his Precalculus class. In addition to discussing the creation and implementation of CM activities, this study examined the perspectives and participation of students of color during these curricular units. Data from 12 students of color, including interviews, focus groups, classroom observations, and student work, were collected over the course of a school year. Detailed descriptions are presented of three CM activities i.e., Local Poverty Unit, AIDS Lab, Gini Coefficient Unit). Analysis of student participation found that students engaged most fully when units integrated transparent mathematical concepts into non-traditional Social investigations. CM activities that lacked mathematical activity and/or reproduced traditional instructional norms resulted in high levels of open and passive resistance. Analysis of student perspectives found that repeated opportunities to integrate the 3 Cs promoted shifts in students orientation toward mathematics. Some students came to see new ways of learning and using mathematics that included various means of participation and connections to ones personal life. In the end, students recognized that mathematics could be relevant and powerful for making sense of the world reading the world), and acknowledged its potential for bringing about change writing the world). Findings point to the essential role personalization plays in helping students develop a sense of social agency. That is, by prioritizing Community knowledge and inviting students to incorporate personal and family stories, teachers promote students integration of their personal perspectives and experiences into their critical analyses.

Musical Citizens: String teachers’ perceptions of citizenship education in the private studio (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

This quantitative study explores string teachers perceptions of citizenship Education and its use in the private lesson. Guided by Westheimer and Kahnes 2004) model of citizenship Education the study sought to identify a) how private string teachers perceive citizenship Education, and b) the factors that influence these perceptions. Four hundred and fifteen 415) members of the American String Teachers Association ASTA) participated in this study by completing an on-line survey that contained both closed and open-ended questions. The resulting data was coded and organized according to the survey questions and the conceptual framework. Research findings revealed that, although teachers did not explicitly consider citizenship education a part of their lessons, their intentions and their report on pedagogical practices could be described as citizenship education when viewed through the conceptual framework used in the study. Indeed, nearly all of the participant responses revealed intentions to include attributes of what Westheimer and Kahne refer to as the Personally Responsible Citizen in their music lessons with students. Educating for traits of other types of citizenship was also reported. Factors deemed influential in string teachers perceptions of citizenship education included the following: If the teachers had earned certification in Suzuki pedagogy; the number of years of teaching experience; if teachers self-identified as primarily educators, performers, or both; the age of the students who are taught. Additionally, the study addresses teachers statements about the use of competitions, dialogue in lessons, and general attitudes about the appropriateness of citizenship education in several different learning environments. The study findings add to a small but growing body of research that furthers understandings of the links between citizenship education and music education. In addition, the findings contribute to our understanding of the complexity of the relationship between private teachers and their students.

Curriculum-based measurement as a predictor of high-stakes outcome measures in social studies (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

Outcomes on summative measures of achievement such as end-of-course assessments, which are often referred to as “high-stakes tests” because the results determine whether students have successfully met a graduation requirement, are likely the product of multiple factors. Students aptitude, instructional practices and teacher attributes, characteristics of the assessment instrument, and other factors contribute to students scores. Because only instructional factors are usually open to change by teachers, it should be valuable for teachers to have a trustworthy means of predicting students outcomes as their knowledge and skill is forming during the course of instruction, thus permitting the teachers to make adjustments in instruction that will increase the chances of students passing the high-stakes test. One method of assessing students competence formatively is to collect data during the course of study, and one of the most extensively studied systems for collecting such formative data is often referred to as “curriculum-based measurement” CBM). Researchers who have examined the psychometric characteristics of CBM measures have found that CBM data collected during the course of study in the elementary areas of reading and arithmetic predict students outcomes on norm-referenced and high-stakes tests Crawford, Tindal, & Steiber, 2001; Fewster & MacMillan, 2002; Helwig, Anderson, & Tindal, 2002; McGlinchey & Hixson, 2004; Sibley, Biwer, & Hesch, 2001). Although the technology exists for using CBM techniques in high-school content-area subject sciences and Social studies), no studies have examined whether these formative measures reliably predict students outcomes on high-stakes tests. This study examined the relationship between scores on CBM measures, in the form of vocabulary-matching mini-tests and high-stakes summative assessments in Social studies. Participants were three high school U.S. history teachers and their students. Students total n=69) were in advanced placement n=20) honors n=27), and general level n=22) classes. Thirty-nine students were female, and 30 were male. Independent variables included: a) six researcher-developed CBM probes, or mini-quizzes, b) a measure of general vocabulary, c) class assignment, d) class rank as determined by grades in the previous grading period, and e) gender. Dependent variables were a) a researcher-developed outcome measure based on Virginias high-stakes assessment and b) the Virginia high stakes Standards of Learning SOL) test. The correlations between scores on CBM probes and both the researcher-made outcome measure r=.327) and the Virginia SOL r=.601) were statistically significant at the 0.01 level. Only class assignment and general vocabulary contributed to the prediction of students scores on the mock outcome measure. However, for the actual high-stakes SOL assessment, class assignment, CBM score, and rank in the class contributed significantly to the prediction of outcomes. These findings indicate that formative assessment, in the form of CBM probes, is a good predictor of scores on high-stakes tests. This information can help teachers predict early in the semester which students are prepared and which students are not prepared for high-stakes tests. Given the capacity to predict outcomes, teachers can alter instruction and increase achievement.

Geographic Information Systems: Instruction in South Dakota’s secondary classrooms (Education Papers posted on March 22nd, 2013 )

In 2001 the state of South Dakota embarked on a progressive, statewide technological initiative in K-12 Education, providing teachers with the tools and skills to teach students how to use Global Positioning Systems GPS) and Geographic Information Systems GIS). The initiative was well received and included many teachers across the state. Recently, however, the state stopped actively supporting teachers in continuing Education and introductory training in GPS/GIS. In this thesis the author sought to: 1) review published research pertaining to the use of GIS/GPS in the classroom and its effects on student achievement; 2) investigate the history and current status of the South Dakota GPS/GIS initiative; 3) evaluate the South Dakota teachers who have implemented GPS/GIS in their classroom, identifying selected characteristics, needs for support, obstacles to using the technology and perceptions of GPS/GIS and its educational value; and 4) measure the attitudinal effect GPS/GIS technology has on one group of World Geography students in South Dakota. It is the hope of the author to shed light on the current situation with the use of GPS/GIS technology in secondary classrooms in South Dakota and provide appropriate recommendations to revitalize the states GPS/GIS initiative.

Geographic Information Systems: Instruction in South Dakota’s secondary classrooms (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

In 2001 the state of South Dakota embarked on a progressive, statewide technological initiative in K-12 Education, providing teachers with the tools and skills to teach students how to use Global Positioning Systems GPS) and Geographic Information Systems GIS). The initiative was well received and included many teachers across the state. Recently, however, the state stopped actively supporting teachers in continuing Education and introductory training in GPS/GIS. In this thesis the author sought to: 1) review published research pertaining to the use of GIS/GPS in the classroom and its effects on student achievement; 2) investigate the history and current status of the South Dakota GPS/GIS initiative; 3) evaluate the South Dakota teachers who have implemented GPS/GIS in their classroom, identifying selected characteristics, needs for support, obstacles to using the technology and perceptions of GPS/GIS and its educational value; and 4) measure the attitudinal effect GPS/GIS technology has on one group of World Geography students in South Dakota. It is the hope of the author to shed light on the current situation with the use of GPS/GIS technology in secondary classrooms in South Dakota and provide appropriate recommendations to revitalize the states GPS/GIS initiative.

Geographic Information Systems: Instruction in South Dakota’s secondary classrooms (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

In 2001 the state of South Dakota embarked on a progressive, statewide technological initiative in K-12 Education, providing teachers with the tools and skills to teach students how to use Global Positioning Systems GPS) and Geographic Information Systems GIS). The initiative was well received and included many teachers across the state. Recently, however, the state stopped actively supporting teachers in continuing Education and introductory training in GPS/GIS. In this thesis the author sought to: 1) review published research pertaining to the use of GIS/GPS in the classroom and its effects on student achievement; 2) investigate the history and current status of the South Dakota GPS/GIS initiative; 3) evaluate the South Dakota teachers who have implemented GPS/GIS in their classroom, identifying selected characteristics, needs for support, obstacles to using the technology and perceptions of GPS/GIS and its educational value; and 4) measure the attitudinal effect GPS/GIS technology has on one group of World Geography students in South Dakota. It is the hope of the author to shed light on the current situation with the use of GPS/GIS technology in secondary classrooms in South Dakota and provide appropriate recommendations to revitalize the states GPS/GIS initiative.

Evolution of the “Goode’s World Atlas” (Education Papers posted on March 19th, 2013 )

The Goodes World Atlas is one of the premier atlases used by schools and universities throughout the United States. The purpose of this study is to look at changes that have occurred in the 21 different editions of the atlas and tie those changes to trends in the field of Cartography, technological advances, and to historical events. There have been many studies that look at how maps have changed over time, but none of these studies have looked at how atlases have been affected by advancements. There have also been several studies that look at changes over a series of editions like textbooks, but again, none have looked at changes of a series of atlases. The results of the research shows that changes in the different editions of the atlas were traceable to changes that took place in Cartography, technology and historical events. The use of different projections and hypsometric tints reflect changes that occurred in Cartography. The conversion to printing using lithographic plates reflects the advancement in technology. And changes in political boundaries and thematic maps reflect changes in historical events.

Developing tomorrow’s leaders: Examining relationships between servant, transformational, transactional, passive/avoidant leadership and emotional intelligence, motivation and leadership opportunities (Education Papers posted on March 15th, 2013 )

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between emotional intelligence (i.e. self-Management, self-awareness, Social awareness, and relationship Management), core beliefs (i.e. beliefs about talent, motivational and Social orientations) and leadership styles (i.e., passive/avoidant, transactional, transformational and servant leadership). In addition, the secondary purpose was to link the impact of leadership opportunities, class/grade level and semesters enrolled at the institute with the development of leadership styles. Participants included 535 male and female junior college and high-school cadets. A comprehensive online questionnaire was utilized to measure leadership styles (i.e., Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), and Revised Servant Leadership Profile (RSLP)), emotional intelligence (i.e., Emotional and Social Competence Inventory (ESCI)), and motivational orientations (i e., Task-Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), Social Motivational Orientation in Sport Scale (SMOSS), and Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-Version 2 (CNAAQ-2)), and demographic variables (i.e., Cadet Demographic and Background Inventory (CDBI) to assess relationships between these variables. Canonical correlation results revealed a strong, positive relationship between all four components of emotional intelligence and the three higher order leadership styles (i.e., transactional, transformational and servant). In addition, the results demonstrated that high task orientation, learning beliefs, and recognition and affiliation social orientations, and lower capacity beliefs were significantly related to more advanced leadership styles (i.e., servant, transformational and transactional leadership). In addition, higher task orientation and learning beliefs, and to a lesser extent ego orientation, and lower capacity beliefs were significantly related to higher levels of emotional intelligence. Finally, individuals in higher grades who had more leadership opportunities, and to a lesser degree, had been enrolled more semesters at the military institute demonstrated a significant positive relationship with all three higher leadership styles (i.e., transactional, transformational and servant), and a negative relationship with passive/avoidant leadership.

From spiritual theory to anti-racist praxis: Rastafari spirituality as an emancipatory pedagogy for schooling and educating Black/African & other minority youth in Ontario (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )

This study examines the meaning and role of RastafarI spirituality for schooling and educating Black/African and other minority youth. It presents RastafarI spirituality as a vehicle through which to address issues of inclusiveness within mainstream schools in Ontario. I argue that RastafarI spirituality provides one useful way in which to prepare students to name, critically analyze and challenge multivariate forms of oppression experienced in schools and society. Through a critical content analysis of contemporary Rasta orature (music, (dub) poetry and language), I illustrate how Rastas articulate their meaning of spirituality, spiritual practices, spiritual experiences and how these articulations become a basis for the decolonization of the African selfhood. I also explore the pedagogic, communicative and instructional relevance of the philosophies of RastafarI for educating youth in Ontario.

Defense d’un modele deliberatif de la citoyennete et analyse de ses implications normatives en matiere de formation civique: Perspectives philosophiques sur l’education a la citoyennete dans le contexte de la reforme educative quebecoise (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )

Ce travail en deux etapes sinspire dauteurs contemporains en philosophie politique, dont Macedo 2000) et Gutmann 1999), qui ont deja procede ainsi. En revanche, cette reflexion na jamais vraiment ete poussee a linterieur du contexte quebecois. Pourtant, a lheure ou lon oeuvre a la mise en application dune reforme educative majeure qui prescrit lintegration dun nouvel enseignement portant sur leducation a la citoyennete, il serait primordial et prealable de clarifier la notion de citoyennete avant meme delaborer le type de formation qui sy rattache. Cet exercice de clarification est motive par labsence, dans le projet de reforme scolaire au Quebec, de references explicites a des travaux en philosophie politique et par le fait que le terme de “citoyennete” est employe, par le ministere de lEducation, sans que cette notion ne soit conceptuellement precisee au depart. Evidemment, une telle confusion ne pourra etre sans incidences sur lambiguite des finalites et des methodes liees a limplantation de ce projet de formation civique a lecole. Pour surmonter les lacunes precedentes – et apres avoir realise une sorte de menage conceptuel en decrivant les dimensions fondamentales et les modeles distinctifs de la citoyennete – nous tenterons dabord dexpliquer pourquoi la conception de la citoyennete reposant sur la theorie deliberative du droit et de la democratie se revele superieure aux autres conceptions dominantes en philosophie politique que sont le liberalisme et le republicanisme. Lavantage du modele deliberatif – principalement concu a partir de la theorie politique de Habermas 1997a) – reside dans le fait de mettre laccent autant sur les libertes privees que sur la participation democratique. Autrement dit, il sagit de demontrer pourquoi ces deux poles doivent etre consideres lun pour lautre comme des conditions de possibilite et comment ce modele deliberatif peut integrer en son sein differentes conceptions de la citoyennete. Nous essaierons ensuite de definir le cadre normatif de la formation civique qui, dans les contextes pedagogiques, serait le plus conforme a la conception de la citoyennete retenue. Il sagit de degager les implications de la conception deliberative dans le domaine de la preparation de futurs citoyens actifs et autonomes politiquement. En effet, nous determinerons les finalites essentielles de leducation a la citoyennete a lecole et les strategies pedagogiques susceptibles de contribuer au developpement des competences necessaires a lexercice dun dialogue public et democratique que lenseignant devra lui-meme promouvoir dans sa classe.