Tag Archive: Recreation

Constraints on Translatability in Literary Translation–A Contrastive Study of Re-creative Translation in Shuihu Zhuan (Education Papers posted on October 28th, 2014 )

The thesis aims at exploring the constraints on translatability in literary translation from the perspectives of linguistic, cultural and literary style, as well as on difficulties caused by these constraints to translators in their efforts to render the source text into the target language. Through a contrastive study of examples chosen from the English translations of Shuihu Zhuan by Sidney Shapiro and Pearl S. Buck, the paper also attempts to propose some strategies of establishing a re-creative approach, both actively and passively, to deal with the constraints on translatability in literary translation.

The effects of attentional focus cues and feedback on motor skill learning in children (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

Considerable research over the past decade has produced overwhelming evidence to support the motor learning advantage associated with an external focus of attention. Despite this robust finding, very few studies have investigated attentional focus effects with children. This is surprising given that considerable information processing differences exist between children and adults that have the potential to influence motor performance and learning. Therefore, two studies were conducted to determine the effect of attentional focus cues and feedback on motor learning in children. In the first study, 42 children ages 9 to 11 were recruited from an afterschool program and randomly assigned to one of three gender-stratified groups: (1) control, (2) internal focus, or (3) external focus. Following initial instructions and task demonstration, participants performed 100 modified free throws over two days while receiving additional cues respective to their attentional focus condition and returned approximately 48 hours later to perform 20 additional free throws. Results revealed no significant learning differences between groups. Although responses to retrospective verbal reports suggest that treatment manipulations were somewhat effective, aiming cues used by the control group and goal directed content used across groups could have potentially negated some treatment effects. In the second study, an additional 28 children ages 9-11 were recruited from the same afterschool program and randomly assigned to one of two gender-stratified groups: (1) internal focus feedback or (2) external focus feedback. The task and procedure were identical to the previous study with one exception. In lieu of attentional focus cues, participants received one of four feedback statements respective to their attentional focus condition following every third trial during practice. Results indicated a significant learning advantage for participants receiving external focus feedback. When compared to the first study, possible explanations for these findings include the external focus group’s greater reported use of feedback and aiming content and the additional benefits of feedback over cues (e.g., frequency). Future research should continue to expand this body of literature to other tasks and age groups as well as investigate explanations regarding potential commonalities between mechanisms underlying aiming content (e.g., quiet eye) and attentional focus.

Factors influencing responses on student evaluations of teachers in recreation curriculum (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

The literature investigating Student Evaluations of Teachers SETs) has been scrutinized for the past 40 years as scholars have disputed the accuracy of SET data and the legitimacy of its use by administrators. Naturally, the curiosity surrounding these evaluative tools spawn from the self-preservation interests of those in academia as the increasing use of SET data in summative decisions could threaten the livelihood of collegiate instructors. While the research surrounding SETs has declined in the past decade, one area has been overlooked, the students perception. To date only three studies have investigated the student perspective. Additionally, the academic area of recreation has been ignored in the SET literature. The problem of the study was to gain an understanding about student perspectives of Student Teacher Evaluations SETs) and the attitudes with which students enrolled in recreation courses complete these evaluative tools. A better understanding of the student perspective elucidated the attitude with which students held when filling out SETs. Given the importance of SET data in tenure and promotion assessments, understanding student perspectives regarding SETs assisted in determining the accuracy of student responses on these evaluative forms. More specifically, the level of seriousness with which a student completed SETs was indicative of the accuracy of SET responses. Students understandings of the purpose and uses of their feedback directly impacts the meaning and authenticity of their responses. The present investigation incorporated the Theory of Planned Behavior TpB) to assist in the construction of instrument items. A letter was sent by the primary investigator to all spring 2006 recreation instructors at a major mid-western university requesting approval to utilize class time during the spring academic semester to solicit student participation in this study. Upon instructor approval and the specified date deemed by the course instructor, a member of the research team entered the class approximately 15 minutes before the end of one class period and informed students about the survey. Subjects self-selected to participate in the survey by completing a 44-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics frequencies and central tendency), chi-square tests of independence, and cumulative logit analyses were conducted for each item in the survey. Supporting the existing literature, students perceived they completed SETs seriously; yet indicated increased knowledge regarding the uses and purposes of SETs would indeed impact their responses. Subjects stated SET data yielded an accurate reflection of their opinions, however, 59.3 % indicated the most notable factor influencing student SET responses was the instructors personality. Relationships among Student Perceptions of Student Teacher Evaluations SPSET) categories and demographic variables were found to hold weak, but significant relationships. This indicated demographic variables indeed played a role in student responses on SETs, however, unknown variables also contributed to subject responses as well. Subject gender which was the most notable variable as a predictor among SPSET responses, followed by age, academic status. The persistent use of SET data by administrators continues to be debated among scholars today. The student perspective is a unique piece of the puzzle to truly ascertain the accuracy of SET data. Although some items did not present startling statistical percentages noting inaccuracies in SET responses, even the minor indications of inaccuracy warrant further exploration of the impact of student perspectives on the uses of SET data in academia.

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Influence of a dexterity training protocol on biomechanical parameters of the knee joint among adolescent female basketball players (Education Papers posted on March 23rd, 2013 )

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a dexterity protocol on biomechanical parameters of the knee joint among competitive adolescent female basketball athletes landing on a force platform from a maximal vertical jump effort, and subsequently performing an unanticipated directional sprint task. Peak ground reaction forces PGRF), peak knee joint flexion PKJF), time to peak knee joint flexion TKJF), and peak knee extension moments PKJM) were collected among six adolescent female basketball players from two randomly solicited elite-for-age teams placed into two groups, experimental n=4; mean = 13.75 yr.) and control n=2; mean age = 13.85yr.). In addition to their regular practice and competition schedule, the experimental group was exposed to a six week dexterity training intervention, while controls followed their typical practice and competition routine. Pre-intervention dependent variables were analyzed with an independent sample t-test and revealed TKJF exhibited the lone significant pre-existing group difference with the unanticipated landing condition. Post intervention biomechanical parameters for both anticipated and unanticipated landing conditions were calculated and evaluated through the use of descriptive statistics. To test the hypotheses related to potential group differences over time, a series of repeated-measures analysis of variance ANOVAs), utilizing a mixed model analysis, was performed for each of the dependent variables. For the unanticipated vertical jump landing condition, results of the ANOVAs revealed no significant main effect of the dexterity protocol for mean PGRF, PKJF, TKJF, and PKJM. Pearsons correlations were performed to determine if relationships among the dependent variables existed, with both unanticipated and anticipated conditions. Unanticipated PKJF and unanticipated TKJF exhibited a moderately strong relationship r = .72, p < .01), while anticipated TKJF exhibited a moderate association with anticipated PKJF r = .58, p < .01) and a moderate inverse relationship with anticipated PKJM r = -.58, p < .01). To determine if significant pre-intervention differences existed between the anticipated and unanticipated landing condition among all participants, a paired sample t-test was conducted for each dependent variable. Mean values for PGRF, PKJF, TKJF, and PKJM were significantly different when comparing the anticipated to the unanticipated landing condition implying the use of different landing strategies with unpredictable situations. Despite the lack of significance among the dependent variables with the unanticipated landing condition, mean values for PKJF and TKJF did exhibit hypothesized trends in that the six week dexterity protocol would respectively generate increases in peak knee joint angular excursion and time to peak knee joint flexion, upon impact with the force platform. Future investigations should further explore potential disparities among anticipated and unanticipated landing scenarios to examine if anterior cruciate ligament ACL) injury intervention protocols must provide greater variability and unpredictability, thus, lending greater insight in the attempt to manage those extrinsic factors associated with non-contact ACL injury among adolescent female athletes.

Athletics success and program expense in NCAA sports (Education Papers posted on March 23rd, 2013 )

The issue of finances in intercollegiate athletics has been debated since nearly the inception of the NCAA. Throughout the near century of intercollegiate athletics governed by the NCAA there have been many issues that have contributed to the Economic growth of intercollegiate sport. This growth has been greatly accelerated over the past three decades. The influence of Economics in college athletics is growing like never before. Since the creation of all-sports television and radio networks such as ESPN in the early 1980s, the increases in dollars spent each year on college athletics for university athletic budgets, media contracts and marketing has been exponential. The impact that college athletics has on the Economics of a community, a state and especially that of the university they represent, has long been debated. Numerous studies have occurred discussing if the success of the athletic program has contributed to the overall enrollment, fund raising and marketing of the university. The purpose of this study was to determine if the amount of operating expense a specific Division I-A athletic team expends correlates to the winning percentage within their own conference or final place in the conference championship in that sport. There are 60 universities and 3,143 different athletic teams that compete in twenty sports represented in the data. Correlation coefficients were found for each of the 359 conference sports over the time period of 2000-2001 through 2004-2005. For conference sports that have a regular season, data was analyzed by finding the Pearson Correlation Coefficient between the winning percentage for conference games within a season and the amount of expense a team records in the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act. For sports that do not have a regular season but has a season ending championship, data was analyzed by finding the Spearman-Rho Correlation Coefficient between the final standing from the championship competition and the amount of expense a team records in the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act. Six hypotheses were researched using the overall data and various subsets of data. A moderate to strong correlation was found between winning and spending at the conference level and trends in correlations were greater for mens teams than womens teams, BCS than Non-BCS, non-revenue than revenue and event championships rather than season long standings.

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All-American sport for all Americans: Collegiate gridiron as citizenship practice during the early Cold War (Education Papers posted on March 22nd, 2013 )

This dissertation tells a cultural history of collegiate football (gridiron) and physical Education in the United States during the early period of the Cold War (1947-1964) through the lens of cultural citizenship and governmentality. By placing the rise of gridiron and physical Education within the context of the Cold War the research takes a historical approach to problems of culture and politics. I argue that gridiron and physical Education served as a “regime of bodily transformation” that participated in the Social production of masculine, white citizens that could fulfill the state’s Cold War needs as disciplined, patriotic workers and warriors. The citizenship frame highlights the simultaneity of race, class, gender, and sexuality within the US’s global imperialist strategies. It also spatializes processes of self-formation or subjectification since citizenship is ultimately about tying self-directed actors to society embodied in a liberal nation-state that acts purposively within international networks and alliances. The empirical support for the dissertation comes from textual analysis and coding of newspaper, magazines, and trade journal articles from the era as well as relevant secondary sources. I further analyzed reports from the National Collegiate Athletic Association; television production manuals; court cases; educational films; popular and scientific books on Health and fitness; and government pamphlets. This dissertation contributes to a growing literature on physical cultural studies but extends that literature by using a history of gridiron and physical education to theorize citizenship during an era of liberal governmentality, often referred to as Fordism.

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Development of a domain-specific measure of perfectionism in sport (Education Papers posted on March 22nd, 2013 )

The purposes of this dissertation are to (a) develop sport-based versions of Frost, Marten, Lahart, and Rosenblate’s (1990) doubts about actions and organization subscales, and (b) produce construct validity evidence to support the inclusion of these new subscales in a revised version of Dunn, Causgrove Dunn, and Syrotuik’s (2002) Sport multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS). Efforts to achieve these purposes are presented in a series of phases based upon Messick’s (1989) conceptualization of validity. The first phase (Chapters 2 and 3) presents the development of sport-based doubts about actions (DAA-Sport) and organization (ORG-Sport) domain specifications. The second phase (Chapter 4) describes the construction of DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport items and establishes content-related validity evidence for the new items via an analysis of expert judges’ ratings of item content relevance and item-set content representativeness. The third phase (Chapter 5) presents structurally-related validity evidence for the DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport subscales through multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of 33 elite-level Ultimate Frisbee players’ similarity ratings between DAA-Sport items, ORG-Sport items, and Sport-MPS items. Results indicate the unique nature of DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport within the context of original Sport-MPS items. These first three phases indicate that DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport are suitable to be included in a revised version of the Sport-MPS (i.e., the Sport-MPS-2). The fourth phase (Chapter 6) presents an examination of the latent dimensionality of the Sport-MPS-2 through a factor analytic examination of 251 Canadian Intercollegiate Sport student-athletes’ responses to the instrument. Results indicate that the Sport-MPS-2 is best represented by six factors (i.e., Personal Standards, Concern Over Mistakes, Perceived Parental Pressure, Perceived Coach Pressure, Doubts About Actions, and Organization). The final phase (Chapter 7) establishes external validity evidence for the Sport-MPS-2 through an examination of the relationships between 181 male intercollegiate varsity ice hockey players’ Sport-MPS-2 scores and their scores on global perfectionism and competitive trait anxiety measures. Analyses indicate that Sport-MPS-2 subscales are related in theoretically meaningful ways to both measures. The construct validity evidence present in this dissertation provides initial support for including DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport subscales into the Sport-MPS-2 for the purpose of examining perfectionism in sport.

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Development of a domain-specific measure of perfectionism in sport (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

The purposes of this dissertation are to (a) develop sport-based versions of Frost, Marten, Lahart, and Rosenblate’s (1990) doubts about actions and organization subscales, and (b) produce construct validity evidence to support the inclusion of these new subscales in a revised version of Dunn, Causgrove Dunn, and Syrotuik’s (2002) Sport multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS). Efforts to achieve these purposes are presented in a series of phases based upon Messick’s (1989) conceptualization of validity. The first phase (Chapters 2 and 3) presents the development of sport-based doubts about actions (DAA-Sport) and organization (ORG-Sport) domain specifications. The second phase (Chapter 4) describes the construction of DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport items and establishes content-related validity evidence for the new items via an analysis of expert judges’ ratings of item content relevance and item-set content representativeness. The third phase (Chapter 5) presents structurally-related validity evidence for the DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport subscales through multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of 33 elite-level Ultimate Frisbee players’ similarity ratings between DAA-Sport items, ORG-Sport items, and Sport-MPS items. Results indicate the unique nature of DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport within the context of original Sport-MPS items. These first three phases indicate that DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport are suitable to be included in a revised version of the Sport-MPS (i.e., the Sport-MPS-2). The fourth phase (Chapter 6) presents an examination of the latent dimensionality of the Sport-MPS-2 through a factor analytic examination of 251 Canadian Intercollegiate Sport student-athletes’ responses to the instrument. Results indicate that the Sport-MPS-2 is best represented by six factors (i.e., Personal Standards, Concern Over Mistakes, Perceived Parental Pressure, Perceived Coach Pressure, Doubts About Actions, and Organization). The final phase (Chapter 7) establishes external validity evidence for the Sport-MPS-2 through an examination of the relationships between 181 male intercollegiate varsity ice hockey players’ Sport-MPS-2 scores and their scores on global perfectionism and competitive trait anxiety measures. Analyses indicate that Sport-MPS-2 subscales are related in theoretically meaningful ways to both measures. The construct validity evidence present in this dissertation provides initial support for including DAA-Sport and ORG-Sport subscales into the Sport-MPS-2 for the purpose of examining perfectionism in sport.

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Importance and availability of content and communication skills among entry-level interpretive naturalists (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

Interpretation seeks to help visitors to make intellectual and emotional connections between themselves and park resources through a communication process. To accomplish this goal, interpreters must be intimately knowledgeable of park resources as well as excellent communicators. The details of what types of knowledge and communication skills are most important to interpretive naturalists have not been formally documented. Likewise, little is formally known about the availability of each skill in pools of entry-level applicants for interpretive positions. This study documented the varying importance and availability of content and communication skills for entry-level interpretive naturalists, based on the perceptions of experienced interpreters. A web-based survey was sent to members of the Interpretive Naturalist subsection of the National Association for Interpretation NAI) n=867) as well as to several interpreters from special park districts who were encouraged to send it on to other interpreters they knew. Responses were received from 308 interpreters. The survey measured respondents perceptions of the importance and availability of content and communication skills desired by organizations in entry-level interpreters. The five most important content skills were Field Ecology, Field Ornithology, Conservation Biology, Field Botany, and Field Mammalogy, while the five most important communication skills were improvisational skills, understanding how children of different ages learn, ability to read their audience, good voice, and ability to write lesson plans/program outlines. Grid analysis was used to display the importance and availability data. The only content skill that was located in the important but unavailable quadrant was Field Geology rocks and minerals). Content skills that were viewed as being important and readily available included Conservation Biology, Field Botany, Field Dendrology, Field Ecology, Field Entomology, Field Herpetology, Field Mammalogy, Field Ornithology, and History. Content skills that were that were viewed as being unimportant consisted of Anthropology, Archaeology, Astronomy, European settlers homestead and craft skills, Field geology fossils), Field Ichthyology, Field Limnology, Field Marine Biology, Field Mycology, Field Oceanography, Folklore, Meteorology, and Native American skills. Communication skills that were viewed as being important but unavailable were interpretive planning, interpretive writing, knowledge of state curriculum standards, storytelling, and understanding international visitors. Communication skills that were viewed as being important and readily available were ability to read their audience, ability to write lesson plans/program outlines, audio-visual equipment operation, conflict resolution skills, good voice, improvisational skills, understanding disabilities, understanding how children of different ages learn, understanding of ethnic and racial groups, and visual communications. Communication skills that were viewed as being unimportant included costuming, exhibit construction, foreign language, graphical communication, interpretive theater, marketing, Mechanical skills, music performance, music editing, supervisory skills, video editing, webpage design, woodworking skills, animal handling/husbandry, art, digital photo editing, outdoor skills, and photography. In addition to determining the importance and availability of a variety of content and communication skills, this study also looked at how music was currently being used in interpretation. Frequently reported skills that were currently available were “none of the above” followed by singing and playing an instrument. The most frequently selected category for musical skills desired by interpretive centers was playing instruments and singing. The most commonly reported musical activities used at centers were leading children in signing songs, having musical acts perform and playing musical recordings. Study results can be used by universities in revising curricula and advising students interested in Environmental interpretation. Persons interested in becoming entry-level employees may use these data in making decisions about preparing themselves to be competitive in the job market and by park staff in designing training for seasonal interpreters.

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Importance and availability of content and communication skills among entry-level interpretive naturalists (Education Papers posted on March 19th, 2013 )

Interpretation seeks to help visitors to make intellectual and emotional connections between themselves and park resources through a communication process. To accomplish this goal, interpreters must be intimately knowledgeable of park resources as well as excellent communicators. The details of what types of knowledge and communication skills are most important to interpretive naturalists have not been formally documented. Likewise, little is formally known about the availability of each skill in pools of entry-level applicants for interpretive positions. This study documented the varying importance and availability of content and communication skills for entry-level interpretive naturalists, based on the perceptions of experienced interpreters. A web-based survey was sent to members of the Interpretive Naturalist subsection of the National Association for Interpretation NAI) n=867) as well as to several interpreters from special park districts who were encouraged to send it on to other interpreters they knew. Responses were received from 308 interpreters. The survey measured respondents perceptions of the importance and availability of content and communication skills desired by organizations in entry-level interpreters. The five most important content skills were Field Ecology, Field Ornithology, Conservation Biology, Field Botany, and Field Mammalogy, while the five most important communication skills were improvisational skills, understanding how children of different ages learn, ability to read their audience, good voice, and ability to write lesson plans/program outlines. Grid analysis was used to display the importance and availability data. The only content skill that was located in the important but unavailable quadrant was Field Geology rocks and minerals). Content skills that were viewed as being important and readily available included Conservation Biology, Field Botany, Field Dendrology, Field Ecology, Field Entomology, Field Herpetology, Field Mammalogy, Field Ornithology, and History. Content skills that were that were viewed as being unimportant consisted of Anthropology, Archaeology, Astronomy, European settlers homestead and craft skills, Field geology fossils), Field Ichthyology, Field Limnology, Field Marine Biology, Field Mycology, Field Oceanography, Folklore, Meteorology, and Native American skills. Communication skills that were viewed as being important but unavailable were interpretive planning, interpretive writing, knowledge of state curriculum standards, storytelling, and understanding international visitors. Communication skills that were viewed as being important and readily available were ability to read their audience, ability to write lesson plans/program outlines, audio-visual equipment operation, conflict resolution skills, good voice, improvisational skills, understanding disabilities, understanding how children of different ages learn, understanding of ethnic and racial groups, and visual communications. Communication skills that were viewed as being unimportant included costuming, exhibit construction, foreign language, graphical communication, interpretive theater, marketing, Mechanical skills, music performance, music editing, supervisory skills, video editing, webpage design, woodworking skills, animal handling/husbandry, art, digital photo editing, outdoor skills, and photography. In addition to determining the importance and availability of a variety of content and communication skills, this study also looked at how music was currently being used in interpretation. Frequently reported skills that were currently available were “none of the above” followed by singing and playing an instrument. The most frequently selected category for musical skills desired by interpretive centers was playing instruments and singing. The most commonly reported musical activities used at centers were leading children in signing songs, having musical acts perform and playing musical recordings. Study results can be used by universities in revising curricula and advising students interested in Environmental interpretation. Persons interested in becoming entry-level employees may use these data in making decisions about preparing themselves to be competitive in the job market and by park staff in designing training for seasonal interpreters.

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