Tag Archive: Reading

A critical content analysis of Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean translated picture books (Education Papers posted on May 14th, 2014 )

This study explores cultural representations and cultural adaptations made by translators in translated childrens picture books. This study has two focuses. In the first part of this study, which is a critical content analysis, I examine the cultural representations depicted in Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean translated picture books, using cultural studies as a theoretical framework. In the second part of this study, I compare original and translated editions of Caldecott and popular Korean picture books to find out how the translators adapt cultural, ideological, and linguistic conflicts in the process of translation, using translation as a dialogic process. For the first part of this study, I found four categories related to the cultural representations: 1) a sense of belonging and societal membership; 2) constructing and challenging gender stereotypes; 3) constructing images of childhood; and 4) dominant visual images of South Korea/the United States. These findings indicate that the insider authors of Korean culture try to show authentic images of South Korea, using contemporary fiction stories. The Korean translated books also deal with various images of American culture authentically from historical fiction to contemporary fiction. However, a small number of books do not show broad cultural representations of both cultures. In the second focus of this study on cultural adaptations, the analysis directly compared original and translated editions of the same texts. The themes of cultural familiarity, adaptations regarding illustrations, completely different translations, omissions, additions, and changes of titles or book jackets were identified. These findings indicate that most American and Korean translators purposely made cultural adaptations in the process of translation in order to help target readers to have better understanding of these international books. Additionally, they did not change essential authentic features, such as the characters names and geographic names. I also found mistranslations between the original and translated editions of books. These changes could have occured because the translators lacked knowledge of both cultures or of the deep structures of the stories. The implication section provides recommendations to publishers, translators, educators, parents, teacher educators, and researchers and suggestions for further research.

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Teaching content material through reader’s theater (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

When it comes to content area material, much of what students read and learn is predicated on information they have read before and are supposed to remember. Teachers often use silent reading and round robin reading as preferred reading methods to help students learn content area material. The objective of this study was to test readers theater against round robin reading and silent reading to determine if readers theater is a viable method of helping students understand and retain information. Three fourth-grade classes read three different stories and plays using three different reading treatments: silent reading, round robin reading, and readers theater reading. Students took post-tests for understanding and retention and participated in a post-study survey along with their teachers. Readers theater in one class was found to have superior scores for understanding and retention compared to silent reading, but in another class it was found to have inferior scores compared to round robin reading for both understanding and retention. In other instances, readers theater was at least equivalent to silent reading and round robin reading when mean test scores were examined. This study, therefore, would suggest that readers theater may be superior to, equivalent to, or inferior to traditional reading approaches with regard to helping students understand and retain content knowledge. There were some confounding factors in the findings that raised questions about variances in classroom teachers, subject matter, and student ability. Key Words: readers theater, silent reading, round robin reading, understanding, retention, reading treatment, group reading, benefits of readers theater, content knowledge.

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Student characteristics and targeted based cognitive Tier II interventions (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Tier II student characteristics and outcomes on a standardized reading assessment. Ninety students who scored in the lowest third on a Virginia standardized reading test were placed into one of three instructional groups: 1) a control group consistent with instruction from previous years, 2) a “teacher selected” treatment group in which teachers determined students’ cognitive processing deficits and administered a chosen intervention, and 3) a “tested” treatment group in which students were administered the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) and assigned interventions based on the results. The mean scores in groups by students’ (a) previous retention status, (b) instructional group, (c) age, and (d) gender were examined. Results indicated that previous retention status significantly predicted test scores and that student age, gender, and instructional group were not significantly related to test scores. Furthermore, interaction effects between retention and instructional group were not found.

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The Effects of a Summer Reading Program on Students’ Oral Reading Fluency (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

Students’ reading skills are closely linked to academic success; however, several students fall behind, especially during the summer months when no academic expectations are present. The summer months are also a time when the achievement gap increases between students from lower income and middle to upper income households. Researchers examined the effect a three-week summer reading program had on elementary students’ oral reading fluency scores. There was a statistically significant increase in students’ scores from the first day of the program to the last day, measured through administration of curriculum-based measurements. Researchers also investigated participants’ perceptions of reading and found a majority of summer reading program participants had a prior enjoyment of reading. Findings suggest that supplemental reading programs in the summer do increase literacy skills, thus decreasing the decline and equalizing opportunities for students from all backgrounds to succeed.

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The impact of a three-week summer reading program on students’ oral reading fluency (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

The impacts of a summer reading program on students’ reading fluency were assessed. Fifteen students in grades first through seventh voluntarily attended a nine-day summer reading program. Participants who attended the program were a good representation of the other students in the school. The school was selected due to the high percentage of students from lower socioeconomic homes (i.e., 62% of 166 students qualified for free and reduced lunch), which can be associated with summer reading decline. All students’ (participants and nonparticipants) reading fluency was assessed in the spring (pretest) using AIMSweb oral reading fluency curriculum based measurements (RCBMs). AIMSweb RCBMs were used again in the fall (posttest) to assess where the students who attended the summer reading program were in comparison to the same age nonparticipants. The results included participants making a 39-point total gain in words read correct for reading fluency, while the nonparticipants had a 25-point decline. Significance was found for the participants in relation to their RCBM scores improving from below the 50th percentile in the spring, to the 50th percentile or above after the program in the fall. The positive impact of this summer reading program is support for an effective summer intervention for students who are at-risk for summer reading decline.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special Education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special Education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special Education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special Education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special Education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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