Tag Archive: Reading

Student characteristics and targeted based cognitive Tier II interventions (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Tier II student characteristics and outcomes on a standardized reading assessment. Ninety students who scored in the lowest third on a Virginia standardized reading test were placed into one of three instructional groups: 1) a control group consistent with instruction from previous years, 2) a “teacher selected” treatment group in which teachers determined students’ cognitive processing deficits and administered a chosen intervention, and 3) a “tested” treatment group in which students were administered the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) and assigned interventions based on the results. The mean scores in groups by students’ (a) previous retention status, (b) instructional group, (c) age, and (d) gender were examined. Results indicated that previous retention status significantly predicted test scores and that student age, gender, and instructional group were not significantly related to test scores. Furthermore, interaction effects between retention and instructional group were not found.

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The Effects of a Summer Reading Program on Students’ Oral Reading Fluency (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

Students’ reading skills are closely linked to academic success; however, several students fall behind, especially during the summer months when no academic expectations are present. The summer months are also a time when the achievement gap increases between students from lower income and middle to upper income households. Researchers examined the effect a three-week summer reading program had on elementary students’ oral reading fluency scores. There was a statistically significant increase in students’ scores from the first day of the program to the last day, measured through administration of curriculum-based measurements. Researchers also investigated participants’ perceptions of reading and found a majority of summer reading program participants had a prior enjoyment of reading. Findings suggest that supplemental reading programs in the summer do increase literacy skills, thus decreasing the decline and equalizing opportunities for students from all backgrounds to succeed.

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The impact of a three-week summer reading program on students’ oral reading fluency (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

The impacts of a summer reading program on students’ reading fluency were assessed. Fifteen students in grades first through seventh voluntarily attended a nine-day summer reading program. Participants who attended the program were a good representation of the other students in the school. The school was selected due to the high percentage of students from lower socioeconomic homes (i.e., 62% of 166 students qualified for free and reduced lunch), which can be associated with summer reading decline. All students’ (participants and nonparticipants) reading fluency was assessed in the spring (pretest) using AIMSweb oral reading fluency curriculum based measurements (RCBMs). AIMSweb RCBMs were used again in the fall (posttest) to assess where the students who attended the summer reading program were in comparison to the same age nonparticipants. The results included participants making a 39-point total gain in words read correct for reading fluency, while the nonparticipants had a 25-point decline. Significance was found for the participants in relation to their RCBM scores improving from below the 50th percentile in the spring, to the 50th percentile or above after the program in the fall. The positive impact of this summer reading program is support for an effective summer intervention for students who are at-risk for summer reading decline.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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A comparison of phonological awareness intervention approaches (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

The predictive power of phonological awareness for later literacy outcomes has prompted educators to develop interventions targeting these skills in children at-risk for qualifying for special education services. These programs have proven successful in positively affecting later literacy achievement. However, studies comparing different intervention strategies are relatively lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of two phonological awareness intervention strategies (drill-based and naturalistic). Forty-four at-risk preschool children were assigned to one of three groups (drill-based, naturalistic, or control group). The intervention groups received twenty minutes of intervention, twice a week for four weeks. Results indicate that both intervention methods were successful in increasing preschooler’s phonological awareness skills compared to a non-treatment control group.

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Reading-mathematics relationship: A race-, SES-, and gender-based comparative analysis of the consistency of reading competency in accounting for individual variability and group differences in mathematics achievement (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

The overall objective of this study was to determine the extent to which reading competency accounted for individual variability and group SES, race) differences in mathematics achievement. Special emphasis was placed on the a) extent to which the relationship between reading and mathematics achievement was consistent for students of different races, sexes, and socioeconomic backgrounds, b) the extent to which reading competency operated in a consistent fashion for Blacks and Whites and for males and females to account for SES differences in mathematics, and c) the extent to which reading competency operated in a consistent fashion for free lunch status students and paid lunch status students and for males and females to account for race differences in mathematics achievement. Data on the socioeconomic status lunch status), sex, race and achievement in reading and mathematics of over 8000 students were analyzed in the study. In all of the analyses performed to investigate the reading-mathematics relationship, achievement in mathematics was found to be strongly and positively associated with reading competency. The overall reading-mathematics relationship, based on the analysis of the data for all the students in the study, had a coefficient greater than 0.77. For the total group of students, the reading variable explained 60% of the individual variability in mathematics achievement. In the separate analyses performed to investigate the extent to which the reading-mathematics relationship was consistent for SES lunch status), sex, and ethnicity/race subgroups, the association between reading competency and mathematics achievement was greater than 0.68, and at its lowest level of performance, reading accounted for at least 48% of the variability in students mathematics scores. The separate analyses of the data for the different categories of students identified by combinations of their race-, lunch-status, and sex-group memberships also revealed a strong association between mathematics achievement and reading competency. The results of all the relevant analyses performed in this study confirmed that SES lunch status) difference in mathematics achievement was largely a function of the SES difference in reading competency. Lunch status accounted for 23.1% of the variance in mathematics scores when the difference in reading competency between the two groups was not accounted for; when the difference in reading was accounted for, IT explained 4.4%. Overall, reading was found to operate in a similar fashion for Black students and White students and for female students and male students in accounting for the difference found in mathematics achievement based on lunch status. Abstract shortened by UMI.)

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The effects of instructional method on fourth-grade reading achievement: Phonics versus a balanced approach in language arts instruction (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

Purpose, scope, and method of study. This study compared reading achievement between two groups of students in Christian schools: one used a phonics approach, while the other used a balanced approach to teach reading to fourth-grade students. The difference of the means of the spring 2002 SAT reading comprehension scores and the spring 2003 SAT reading comprehension scores of the students in the two groups were compared. Scaled scores were used because the scaled score enables one to compare students test scores with those of other students and evaluate changes in student performance across subtests and testing occasions. School administrators provided data from spring 2002 SAT scores and spring 2003 SAT scores for each student. The students were divided into four different levels based on their spring 2002 SAT scaled score. The data was analyzed by a factorial ANOVA. The independent variables were the method of instruction and the scaled score level of the students, while the dependent variable was the change in the students scores from pretest to posttest. Findings and conclusions. The findings indicated that there was no significant difference between the two groups phonics approach and balanced approach). Thus, the hypothesis of this study was rejected. Teaching methodology had no significant effect on reading comprehension achievement for this study. A significant main effect for Level was found. Students in both groups) that started fourth grade at the lowest level showed a significant increase in scaled score on reading comprehension by the end of fourth grade when compared against the other three reading performance levels.

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