Tag Archive: Organizational

Antecedents of transactional, transformational, and servant leadership: A constructive-development theory approach (Education Papers posted on March 23rd, 2013 )

This field study examined the antecedents of transactional, transformational, and servant leadership behaviors measured on continuum of constructive-development development theory. Data collected from 54 leaders and 409 followers from community and educational leadership programs across the United States. A multi-level analysis conducted using hierarchical linear modeling combining leaders perception of their leadership behaviors, followers rating of leaders behaviors and measure of leaders level of constructive-development order. Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Avolio & Bass, 2004) and Servant Leadership Questionnaire Barbuto & Wheeler, 2006) and correlated with constructive-development Order using the Subject-Object Interview Kegan,1982; Lahey, Souvaine, Kegan, Goodman, & Felix, 1988) several results related leaders behaviors and exchange processes between leaders and followers. One finding study suggests leaders acknowledged the overuse of managing others based upon rules, standards, and past mistakes in their self-ratings. Leaders use of active management-by-exception may impact his/her response to followers failures, mistakes, and adherence to standards. This overuse of rules, standards, and past failures may result from leaders perceptions of what others ask of their ability to be leaders. At constructive-development Third Order, leaders in this study showed strong belief in providing developmental activities for followers individual consideration). Coupled with the finding on active management-by-exception, followers may not consider leaders activity as developmental but more for the preservation of the organization and its systems. Leaders also believed they provided stimulation to followers in their organizations for innovation and creativity to solve problems in new ways intellectual stimulation). One attributes of servant leadership behavior was significant in this study Followers indicated a leaders wisdom, awareness and foresight), had a positive connection with leaders constructive-development Order. As one of few known studies of leaders behaviors and constructive-development theory, this research holds promise for longitudinal study and replication to increase the understanding of how leaders can rise to the behaviors as outlined in the transformational and servant leadership theories. This type of study could provide valuable information and insights for encouraging development of individuals and organizations who work on problems and processes in todays complex organizations.

A multi-site ethnography exploring culture and power in post-secondary education partnerships (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

Partnership is perceived to be a means for democratizing educational institutions, and a panacea for organizational difficulties. This multi-site ethnography examines how partnership development influences power and Social relations. It traces political, Social, and cultural dimensions of a partnership project to explore the complexities of developing partnerships within and between post-secondary organizations. My study focuses on a distance education project involving two B.C. colleges and a First Nations education organization. I collected data through participant observation and in-depth interviews at all three organizations during two years of partnership negotiations. The data is analyzed with a multifaceted framework constructed from critical planning, cultural production, and practice theories. I examine how participants understood the partnership, and how their understandings and activities affected partnering relationships. My interdisciplinary framework links the particulars of this partnership project with broad cultural and political processes. I learned that partnership involves crossing boundaries through complicated, dynamic, and fluid interactions. Relationships, assumptions, and activities within each partnering organization affected boundary encounters that took place within organizations as well as between them. Partnership development reproduced Social relations at the same time as it produced new possibilities for cultural, political, and social change. My study concludes that a plurality of loosely linked interests, structures, discourses and practices provided options for the participants to strategically transform relationships by mobilizing cultural elements, and by negotiating power relations. Even practices that maintained boundaries, or appeared to be tightly integrated with hegemonic discourses, held the potential to transform unequal relations through a creative and productive form of agency. My study has practical implications for planners and those involved in partnership work, because it illuminates critical political and cultural dynamics that inform decision-making. It illustrates that the boundary zone of partnership is fertile ground for developing theory, and for revealing new possibilities in political, cultural, and social relations.

Inter-organizational collaboration, problem solving, and capacity building: Insights from a case study analysis (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

Communities need effective strategies to meet the diverse needs of citizens and solve problems. Inter-organizational networks provide a cross-sectoral approach to identify issues, collectively establish goals and coordinate resources to develop sustainable solutions. This research is a case study analysis of the Community Planning Committee, an inter-organizational network, in 100 Mile House, British Columbia, Canada. Through action research methodology, members of the Community Planning Committee explored factors which support and hinder the inter-organizational collaboration, problem solving and capacity building of this network. Members of the Community Planning Committee felt the collaborative problem solving process supported the development of trust and respect and recognized that the results produced collectively were greater than could be achieved independently which supported an ongoing commitment to the network. The theory of change was used as a framework to delineate implications for the researcher’s practice in rural communities in School District No. 27 (Cariboo-Chilcotin), British Columbia.

A multi-site ethnography exploring culture and power in post-secondary education partnerships (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

Partnership is perceived to be a means for democratizing educational institutions, and a panacea for organizational difficulties. This multi-site ethnography examines how partnership development influences power and Social relations. It traces political, Social, and cultural dimensions of a partnership project to explore the complexities of developing partnerships within and between post-secondary organizations. My study focuses on a distance education project involving two B.C. colleges and a First Nations education organization. I collected data through participant observation and in-depth interviews at all three organizations during two years of partnership negotiations. The data is analyzed with a multifaceted framework constructed from critical planning, cultural production, and practice theories. I examine how participants understood the partnership, and how their understandings and activities affected partnering relationships. My interdisciplinary framework links the particulars of this partnership project with broad cultural and political processes. I learned that partnership involves crossing boundaries through complicated, dynamic, and fluid interactions. Relationships, assumptions, and activities within each partnering organization affected boundary encounters that took place within organizations as well as between them. Partnership development reproduced Social relations at the same time as it produced new possibilities for cultural, political, and social change. My study concludes that a plurality of loosely linked interests, structures, discourses and practices provided options for the participants to strategically transform relationships by mobilizing cultural elements, and by negotiating power relations. Even practices that maintained boundaries, or appeared to be tightly integrated with hegemonic discourses, held the potential to transform unequal relations through a creative and productive form of agency. My study has practical implications for planners and those involved in partnership work, because it illuminates critical political and cultural dynamics that inform decision-making. It illustrates that the boundary zone of partnership is fertile ground for developing theory, and for revealing new possibilities in political, cultural, and social relations.

Inside Sunday school: Cultural and religious logics at work at the intersection of religion and education (Education Papers posted on March 18th, 2013 )

The dominant narrative about mainstream religious life in late 20 th century America was one of mainline religion on the decline. This narrative, however, was created by religion scholars without looking very closely one of the backbone institutions of American congregations: the Sunday school. By taking the Sunday school into account, we see that congregations are not only religious institutions, but also settings for education. As hybrid organizations, congregations are sites where the logics of schooling and religion are both in operation. When we recognize this hybrid nature of congregational activity, we can turn to additional bodies of literature and ways of understanding organizations. This comparative, ethnographic study looks inside three congregations and their Sunday schools. Data from interviews, observations, and printed materials are brought to bear on the guiding question: In what ways does religious tradition make a difference in the way a congregation constructs and understands its program of religious education? Extending scholarship from the history of education, I argue that shared cultural expectations about two things—where “real” learning happens and what congregations are supposed do—has led to similarities in the way congregations organize their programs of religious education, regardless of variation in faith tradition. At the same time, evidence from the study shows that theology still matters; congregations understandings of what religious education is for and what it can do are clearly aligned with their religious tradition. Cultural factors impact how religious education is constructed, but religious factors impact what it means. Scholarship in the fields of religion and education tends to assign organizations to one sector or another, but not all organizations fit so neatly into just one Social category. Furthermore, the groups of people who populate these organizations live their lives moving among multiple sectors every day; as a result, particular logics or ways of thinking that generally operate in one Social arena find their way into another. Using the case of the congregational Sunday school, this study shows how the logics of schooling and religion are each transported across the boundaries of their home sectors and make their mark in new territory.

Building inclusive communities: The Meals on Wheels program at St. Christopher House (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )

This thesis is concerned with the creation of inclusive communities from the point of view of interpersonal relations in contexts of Social diversity. The inclusive community is understood in this thesis as a form of Social organization that brings together diverse individuals and enables them to meaningfully engage each other in interaction. The thesis illustrates the process of creation of inclusive communities through the analysis of the Meals on Wheels program at St. Christopher House in Toronto, a volunteer-based program that delivers meals to individuals who cannot look after their own nutrition. Based on this case the thesis shows that there is a significant world of Social interactions beyond the practice of meal delivery that result in the form of an inclusive community. The thesis concludes by drawing lessons from the case study regarding the process of building inclusive communities as well as their role in creating social change.

Art education in Arkansas: The organizational history of the Arkansas Art Educators from 1922 to the present (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )

The purpose of my research is to document the changes and advancements in art education in Arkansas through the written history of the art teacher organization, the Arkansas Art Educators (AAE). Chronicling the efforts of AAE’s membership to advocate for art education will help preserve the history of AAE and connect it with the broader history of the educational developments in the state between 1922 and the present.

Inspiring citizenship and leadership: Youth Citizenship Seminar (Education Papers posted on March 10th, 2013 )

This research investigated whether Youth Citizen Seminar YCS), a youth service organization, utilizes transformational leadership and learning. Additionally, participation in YCS was studied to understand how adolescents are influenced to become active in leadership, public service/volunteering, and citizenship activities. The researcher compared YCS, a 5-day youth service program, to a longer-term youth service program with respect to leadership, public service/volunteering, and citizenship activities, as well as determined whether YCS is equally effective with respect to race/ethnicity and gender. The research used a mixed-method research design, utilizing a questionnaire, consisting of scaled and open-ended questions, to examine the prevalence of various beliefs and behaviors of former participants in YCS. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to tabulate and summarize results from the questionnaire. The findings indicated that YCS utilizes transformational leadership characteristics and learning to build upon the existing leadership abilities of YCS participants. This suggests that YCS participation positively influences involvement in leadership and citizenship activities, especially during the participants senior year of high school, and that the impact of the YCS program on participants lasts into adulthood. The findings also indicated that YCS is as effective as and possibly better than a longer-term youth-serving organization with respect to inspiring involvement in leadership, public service/volunteering, and citizenship activities as adults. Further, YCS appears to have the same impact on participants, regardless of race/ethnicity or gender. Based on the results, the researcher concluded that a focused, 5-day transformational youth program such as YCS has the ability to inspire adolescents, including those from socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and to engage adolescents in civic socialization. Additionally, a focused transformational leadership and learning youth development program has lasting effects with respect to inspiring adolescents to become involved in leadership, public service/volunteering, and citizenship activities. Finally, a transformational youth program that selects adolescents who have just completed the 11 th grade can provide a link back to high schools.

A critical ethnography: The process of change at a core knowledge junior high school (Education Papers posted on March 9th, 2013 )

The challenge of educational change and the culture of organizational change have been the focus of research and literature for many decades. A look at the history of American education reveals that change designed in the direction of Social fairness traditionally falls short of the objectives or fails completely within its first five years Benham-Tye, 2000). The need for change and for continual renewal to improve schools is evident. The journey of change and the obstacles of that journey are more complex. The process of change and the puzzling dynamics of that process were the subject of this study. The purpose of the study was to further the understanding of the change process, the conditions which surround success and the obstacles which accompany failure. The focus of the study was a junior high school, which opened in the fall of 2004. An ethnographic study was conducted at the site over the period of the schools first sixteen months, from May 2004 to August 2005. The purpose of the first study was to record the journey of the school from its inception. In that first year, four key themes emerged: collaboration; visionary leadership; teachers and parents as agents of change; and trusting the process. That original study provided the archival data that were the starting point for the present study. The present study began in August, 2007 and continued through February, 2008. Research questions were designed to investigate the process of change over time. The qualitative research method was a modified version of Phil Carspeckens Model for Critical Ethnography 1996). The findings revealed additional cultural themes and dimensions as well as obstacles and barriers to the change process. New themes in year four. 1) The Journey of Change – From “Speed Boat to House Boat to Barge”; 2) Change Experienced by the Members – The Teachers Stories; 3) From Trust the Process to Process the Trust – A Dose of Self-Scrutiny Four cultural dimensions. 1) Inquiry – Continual Study and Learning to Improve the Practice; 2) Responsibility – Speaking with Integrity and Doing What is Said; 3) Care – Practicing a Nurturing Pedagogy; 4) Celebration – Working Joyfully and Acknowledging Human Effort Obstacle to change . 1) Growth of School; 2) Fiscal Limitations; 3) Nature of the Profession; 4) Conventional Thinking Recommendations were made in the concluding chapter.

The role of the pastor in conflict management: A case study of two Southern Baptist churches affected by congregational conflict (Education Papers posted on March 9th, 2013 )

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore which conflict management actions of the pastor were most meaningful to the members of a congregation which experienced significant conflict. The setting was two large, urban Southern Baptist churches in the southern part of the United States. The researcher interviewed nineteen subjects, using the grand tour question, What can be discovered about which conflict management actions of the pastor are most meaningful to the members of the congregation? and two related sub-questions. The researcher served as the primary tool for data collection and analysis. He used inductive content analysis of the interview transcripts and discovered eight themes related to the pastors role in conflict management. The members of the conflicted congregations reported the following themes, in decreasing order of the frequency of their occurrence in the interviews: leadership style; rate of change; demeanor; building relationships; preaching; communication; reconciliation effort; and honesty. The accuracy of these themes is suggested by their appearance written documents from the time of the conflict in each church and in numerous non-academic sources on church conflict management. This study suggested that pastors in church conflict situations should pay particular attention to these areas in their ministry to congregants.