Tag Archive: Music

The Tragedy–A New Approach to Die Geburt Der Trag(?)die (Education Papers posted on February 22nd, 2015 )

The first part of the writing adapts the portion of which Nietzsche used Apollo and Dionysus to interpret Greek tragedy, in order that be closer to noble classics. Still until a better Book of Tragedy is created, Die Geburt der Tragodie would kept being the greatest one. This part also provides a sensitive reference to perceive what is needed on the Book of Tragedy’s reading. The second part faces the culture legacy of Greece in the way facing the thing itself, immersing sure texts of Homer, tragic poets and Socrates, casting eyes on the Greek Culture itself as well as apprehending Greek view of Nietzsche. In the tension in common, Greece turns out to be more abundant, more substantial, more like itself to the noble and eternal existence. The third part traces back to the tradition of Dionysus understanding in Germany, in a sense holds the key or reveals the essential dimension of German Spirit. No matter what an author, it’s the land where Nietzsche was born. To follow Nietzsche, surveying the vast depth of field of his reading history or the classical tradition in his deepgoing learning experience is required. To follow the Book of Tragedy, not only following the great although a bit obscure art metaphysics is emphasized, but also the other job is indispensable, that is, to pour the connotation and quality of Greek Culture, German Spirit and vital experience of music hidden in the book into the chest. Those who merely can recite every word of the Book of Tragedy must firmly convince that he has totally grabbed Nietzsche’s soul. The last part of the writing is action of tragedy, which reminds people the formation of tragic view is not a finish, but distantly an outset, like the first wipe of sunglow after long long darkness. Since the noble world view and value has erected, then noble practice on earth begins, definitely would creat a higher culture of future.

Bistatic ULA-MIMO Radar Target Parameters Estimation Methods Based on Quaternion Theory (Education Papers posted on January 30th, 2015 )

It has been more than ten years since the concept of MIMO radar was putforward.Due to it’s inherent characteristic such as virtual aperture, spatial diversity,waveform diversity, it is more superior than conventional phased array radar inperformance of the target detection and localization. Therefore, the MIMO radar hasattracted wide attention of scholars both at home and abroad. As an important branchof the centralized MIMO radar, Bistatic MIMO radar is playing an increasinglyimportant role. And it has been a hot topic in the research field of MIMO radar.Theparameter estimation is not only an important goal for the field of bistatic MIMOradar, but also the realization of the key technologies of radar precise targetlocalization. The echo signals of bistatic radar contain receiving Angle informationand launch Angle information, which makes the target parameters of bistatic MIMOradar has a high estimation precision. Therefore it has a broad applicationprospects.This paper researches on the bistatic MIMO radar whose transmiting andreceiving array both are uniform linear arrays.In recent years Quaternion theory has got application in the field of rigid bodymechanics, image processing, pattern recognition, array signal processing. Since thequaternion orthogonal vector has stronger orthogonal constraints than plural, so theparameter estimation algorithm based on quaternion theory has better model errorfault tolerance. By means of Hilbert transform this article construct four orthogonaldata as a quaternion four dimensional orthogonal component based on the model ofthe traditional bistatic ULA-MIMO radar data to discribe the bistatic ULA-MIMOradar quaternion model visually. Then based on the quaternion model, studies thetarget parameter estimation of the bistatic ULA-MIMO radar.The paper studies the MUSIC algorithm for the bistatic ULA-MIMO radar quaternion model. Based on the bistatic ULA-MIMO radar quaternion model,quaternion data matrix is constructed and the MUSIC algorithm based on thequaternion matrix singular value decomposition and the MUSIC algorithm based onthe educing matrix of quaternion matrix singular value decomposition are put forward.The results of simulation esperiment show the effectiveness of the proposed twoalgorithms. Based on the quaternion model self-conjugate quaternion data matrix isconstructed and the MUSIC algorithm based on the self-conjugate quaternion righteigenvalue decomposition and the MUSIC algorithm based on the educing matrix ofthe self-conjugate quaternion eigenvalue decomposition are put forward. The resultsof simulation experiment show the effectiveness of the proposed two algorithms.Finally, performance contrast simulation experiments are done with the proposed fourquaternion MUSIC algorithms. The experimental results show that the MUSICalgorithm based on the educing matrix of quaternion matrix singular valuedecomposition is the most excellent.The paper studies the ESPRIT algorithm for the bistatic ULA-MIMO radarquaternion model. Based on the quaternion data matrix, the ESPRIT algorithm basedon the educing matrix of quaternion matrix singular value decomposition is putforward. The results of simulation experiment show the effectiveness of the proposedalgorithm. Based on the self-conjugate quaternion data matrix, the ESPRIT algorithmbased on the educing matrix of the self-conjugate quaternion matrix eigenvaluedecomposition is put forward. The results of simulation experiment show theeffectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Finally, performance contrast simulationexperiments are done with the proposed two quaternion ESPRIT algorithms. Theexperimental results show that the ESPRIT algorithm based on the educing matrix ofquaternion matrix singular value decomposition is the most excellent.

Poetry and Music (Education Papers posted on December 24th, 2014 )

As a poet and English classical scholar, Alfred Edward Housman (1859–1936) was anoutstanding literary creator of the late Victorian period. On the first attempts in his literarycareer, he published a small cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad in1896. With spare languageand distinctive imagery, he portrays a pastoral English countryside and the sentimental ladwho laments the transience of time and life without religious consolation. This collectionsoon established Housman’s status in British poetic history as a classical poet. What is more,this collection appeals strongly to lots of composers ranging from the late Victorian period tonowadays. These composers have sought inspiration from the text of this collection andconveyed their interpretations of the Lad poems through their musical settings. Based on thesurvey by Dr. Whittingham, until2008, the musical settings of A Shropshire Lad by Britishcomposers have reached the amount of over600, leaving alone a lot of Lad settings bycomposers from the other parts of the world. Thus A Shropshire Lad also has considerableimpact on British music.Housman holds a special place among his contemporaries both in poetic and musicalcircles, which arouses the question: what quality does A Shropshire Lad have to make it soinclining to the world of music? The relationship between poetry and music is an old topic.Housman’s collection serves as a text for scholar to unveil the charm of the integration of thetwo art souls. In China, however, the study of Housman and his Lad collection is still at astarting stage. In western world, though some scholars have done many researches onHousman and A Shropshire Lad from various aspects, however when it comes to poetry andmusic in this collection, scholars mostly discuss the topic on pure music stance. Thecomprehensive and profound musicological theories applied to those papers prevent thosereaders without musicological background from reading and understanding them. Besides, italso makes it impossible for any reader to sense the poetic and melodic features of thiscollection at the same time.This paper mainly focuses on the analysis of A Shropshire Lad in the light of the ideasabout the relationship between poetry and music in hand. After a comprehensive discussion of some ideas about their relationship on the basis of the former analyses, two researchperspectives are to be employed to reveal A Shropshire Lad’s musical inner–the richness ofits musicality and musical techniques for the Lad poetry’s interpretation–the variety of itssettings. In the second perspective which is taking a musical position, the writer in particularaims to use simple language to explain the Lad poems in music. Through the alternationfrom music in poetry to poetry in music, some relationship between poetry and musicpresented by A Shropshire Lad text can be exemplified in this paper.

Literature and music has accompanied people entering the modern soci… (Education Papers posted on November 8th, 2014 )

Literature and music has accompanied people entering the modern society from remote antiquity. Anywhere from Eastern to western, during the childhood of human beings, in the track of prehistorical art, poem, music, dancing were all combined as a whole. In the later process of developing, literature and music separated from the combination of language, singing and dancing, and became two types of art with their respective character. Being more independently, the two reunited in a higher degree. With the more abundant way of combination, their expressing way influenced each other by which their art expressive force was extended, their meaning was enriched. All these promoted the prosperity and development of the two types of art.With literature as its noumenon, this paper focused on the deeply research of the two kinds of art by means of comparing. The relationship of literature and music was thoroughly investigated crossing subjects. The music property in literature work is the pivot of this paper. Text research had been the mainstream of literature research in the past, this paper applied itself to the idea of coexistence of literature and music.Firstly, this paper recalled the process of literature development. From belonging to the same root to separation, until the mutual infection and pervasive of each other, the historical fact of being congenetic can been proved from the definition of literature, Chinese characteristic, literature criticism, literature history and so on. However, with the development of these two kinds of art, and with the invention and application of paper, printing, they were separated into two independent art. To a certain stage, they began to influence and pervasive to each other consciously. All these showed the close relationship between music and literature from remote antiquity to modern times.Secondly, this paper analyzed the differences of literature and music from five aspects such as substance media, expressing sign, art technique, the meaning of the sign, the way of enjoying. Meanwhile, the ‘same nature of art’ can be found from the differences, that is, the small limitation which comes from the material condition to sound, time, rhythm, the coexistence of definite meaning and multi-interpretation, and the high ability of re-creation. The differences make the literature and music process their own character and become two independent kinds of art, and the ‘same nature of art’ makes the two influence and pervasive to each other, with which their respective art expressive force are enriched.Thirdly, this paper listed a large quantity of historical fact on art creation, recalled the developing process of literature history, particularly discussed the inner impact between literature and music in four aspects as content, style, thoughts and theory.Afterward, making literature as it noumenon, this paper mainly focused on the issue of the music property in literature creation. Investigating from the all round aspects of content, form, creation, enjoyment, this paper summarized that music property plays a supplement and consummate role in literature creation.At last, this paper analyzes the agreement point of music and literature, that is, the yearn and aspiration of freedom. The final conclusion is, one of the possibility of literature development is penetrating musical elements into literature.

Achieving balance in music for chorus and band: Analysis and performance issues in Requiem by Frigyes Hidas (Education Papers posted on May 14th, 2014 )

The purpose of this study is to provide a guide for conductors when evaluating issues of balance in works for chorus and symphonic band, and to assist them in realizing such works in performance. The principal focus of the document will be an analysis of vocal and instrumental textures in Requiem by Frigyes Hidas as they affect balance and textual clarity, using accompaniment types described by Hawley Ades as guides. The analysis shows that the scoring helps mitigate balance problems commonly found in other works scored for similar forces, making a variety of performance options and interpretations available to conductors. Ensemble issues are discussed as they relate to balance, as are practical solutions regarding stage setup.

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A comparative analysis of the academic achievement of band and non-band participants in Craven County, North Carolina (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

This study was intended to compare the academic achievement of students who participated in high school band classes with non-band participants. A problem of practice study was designed to provide data for principals who were creating transitional or remedial courses to benefit core courses. The creation of these courses presented potential scheduling problems that could be detrimental to music programs. Over 3,900 students were observed and a comparative analysis was performed using the following educational variables: a) grade point average, b) English 1 End-of-Course test proficiency, c) Algebra 1 End-of-Course test proficiency, d) Biology End-of Course test proficiency, e) period attendance, f) number of days of out-of-school suspension, and g) dropout rates. Data was observed for all traditional high school students during the 2011–2012 school year. The study indicated that students who participated in at least one band class during the observed year experienced higher academic achievement than non-participants. The academic achievement of band participants was significantly higher than non-participants in six out of seven of the observed variables.

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The Practice of Practice: A Collective Case Study of How Music Practice is Conceived, Executed, and Learned by Professional Musicians in Four Genres of Music (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

Practice is a fundamental skill for all musicians of every level. Currently, research on music practice has investigated practice primarily in Western art music traditions. This collective case study of music practice expands the scope of genres being investigated to include Western classical, U. S. popular, jazz, and Indian classical musical traditions. Semi-structured interviews and an information-gathering survey were used to uncover the concepts, execution, and learning trajectories of music practice for two professional musicians from each genre. The research questions for this study are as follows: 1. What does the concept of practice mean to accomplished classical, U.S. popular, jazz, and Indian classical musicians? 2. What are the components of effective practice for these genres of music according to expert practitioners? 3. How have accomplished musicians in these traditions learned to practice effectively? Participant data show evidence that definitions of music practice included more activities than those investigated thus far in the research record, and that music practice was more enjoyable than unenjoyable, a finding in direct opposition to the most-cited definition of practice in the literature. In addition, this dissertation proposed an organizational structure for research literature on music practice in order to provide a framework that highlights gaps in the research record and fosters a coherent agenda for future research.

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The Challenge of Orchestral Reductions: A Case Study of Writing a Reduction for Mozart’s 5th Violin Concerto, K. 219 (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

The purpose of this document is to develop a process for addressing the various challenges and issues inherent in writing an orchestral reduction for piano, and to create a new score designed to be useful to collaborative pianists in rehearsals and performance, through the case study of writing a new reduction for Mozarts 5th Violin Concerto in A major, K. 219. The methodology includes an overview of the existing literature on orchestral reductions in order to establish an historical continuum and to articulate a recognized approach as to how one writes a reduction for piano. The three subsequent process chapters are dedicated respectively to each of the three movements of the concerto. Each chapter includes an analysis of the orchestral score itself and discusses the reduction of the score, section by section. Excerpts from existing editions are incorporated as appropriate in order to compare and contrast different reduction techniques. Issues that arise during the process are addressed, and solutions are offered to problematic passages based on a set of analytical procedures that involve harmonic, melodic, structural and performance-based considerations. Thus, this document offers a step-by-step process to what can otherwise be a very subjective task. While the technical and aesthetic demands of undertaking the writing of a reduction are many, and the process often subjective, the intention was to create a methodology and develop systematic tools for approaching any reduction in an objective manner. Since music-making always has, and always will be one that involves artistry, creativity, and subjectivity, it is unreasonable to conclude that a definitive, completely un-subjective process could ever be developed. However, the resulting score, created by a collaborative pianist to be used by other collaborative pianists in performance and rehearsals reflects a process mindful of technical, practical and aesthetic concerns that ensures integrity to the original score.

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Artistic beginnings: A case study of everyday arts usage in one preschool’s classrooms (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )

This qualitative case study in one nursery school setting identifies the everyday music, drama, dance, and visual art practices of classroom teachers and the reasons behind these practices. It also examines the formal and informal background and Education of the teachers to determine if these factors play a role in their use of the arts. Through questionnaires, interviews, observations, journals, lesson plan analysis and arts activity logs, three teachers were intensively examined with five others participating to a lesser extent. Overall teachers were found to use visual art and music more than drama and dance; however, they used visual art in different ways and for different reasons than music. While visual art and drama were more creative in that children were allowed to create their own artwork, music activities were primarily made up of whole group singing and helped children transition from one activity to another or learn class routines. Dance was utilized the least and often grew out of the music in the form of motions or gestures. Both teachers’ formal Education as well as their own childhood arts experiences were found to influence their approach to teaching the arts in their classroom. Although teachers in this study were highly educated with most having or working towards a graduate degree, few had any classes instructing them on how to best utilize the arts with young children. This study revealed an array of reasoning behind using the arts in the classroom including addressing different learning styles and needs, teaching or reinforcing other subject areas, for socialization purposes, helping children learn routines, and engaging or focusing their behavior. The study recommends that more opportunities be made available for musical and movement-based exploration or play in the classroom, and that teachers be given some guidance in what developmental growth looks like in each art form so that they may best facilitate opportunities for children to construct knowledge in these areas. Additionally, early childhood teacher training programs should reexamine their arts education requirements as teachers of young children spend so much of their day using these materials and are often given little preparation.

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Teaching jazz concepts in the vocal jazz ensemble rehearsal (Education Papers posted on March 19th, 2013 )

The inherent difficulty with any student vocal jazz ensemble is the time needed for students to master their parts. Many directors are wary of teaching jazz concepts in rehearsal for fear they will not have time to prepare for performance. The goal of this project is to provide directors possible ways to efficiently incorporate important aspects of jazz styles—namely rhythmic feel, song form, improvisation, and harmony—into the rehearsal by showing connections between these concepts and the literature the ensemble is learning. Doing so will benefit students musically, and result in better performances of their repertoire. These improved performances will come as a result of students being more competent and confident in jazz style. Through the investigation of written material on vocal jazz pedagogy and an in-depth consideration of four contrasting arrangements, this paper will present ways to incorporate fundamental aspects of the jazz idiom into the rehearsal setting.

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