The new era’s writers in China never stopped writing the death and violence,and they endue them even more meanings.Penalty is a special form of violence and death,the difference between them is that violence is everywhere and at all times.But penalty belongs to a particular history,particular environment and the specific populations,and it has much richer contents.The penalty is a punishment,which has characteristics of the ages.The authors in new era take full advantages of this feature,they ponder and investigate, society, history and humanity from it.Public penalty ritual seems like a wingding party.The purpose of penalty ritual is punishment,but it meets the people’s desire for novelty and ornamental pleasure,it showed such strong fun for people that the disciplinary function of penalty is diluted and turned into a universal carnival ceremony.Writers in the new era consider that each role in the penalty ritual is meaningful,including emperors,dignitaries,officials,the executioners, the victims and spectators;and each class has a strong imprint of the ages and life, reflecting the differences but similar fun and life pursuits.New era’s writers express a wide range of topics by penalty writing,There are two main themes: reflections on power and history,and exploration of humanity.Power is everywhere and omnipotent in our life.Everyone is under the control of power.People with power fight with each other.The loss of power is clamped everywhere.The function of penalty means that those with power against people who dare to offend them.The history of mankind is the history of fight,and the result of fight is the penalty.It can be said that human history is a history of punishment.The description of penalty point to the brutal nature of human.Penalties put people’s physical and mental in an extreme condition,and make people’s cruelty and boring nature exposed.The new era’s writers in china demonstrate their understanding of human nature with the help of penalty description,and shows the whole dark side of human nature to readers. Penalty description also plays a special role in the novel’s narrative structure.Mo Yan’s The penalty of Sandalwood connects the text clues by the conflict of five penalty,and organizes the structure of text by penalty ritual. The structure of Yu Hua’s1986and Past and Penalty is very complex.This two novels reflect writer’s particular concept of time.The spatial structure in penalty description is execution ground,which integrates many comical phenomenons, characters and emotions——which seems to be a simple place but has a powerful accommodate capacity.Despite some writers like to write about penalty such as Mo Yan,Yu Hua,A Lai,Wang Xiaobo,they all have their own distinct personality and linguistic characteristics of writing.In Chapter3,1will analyzes in details Mo Yan, Yu Hua, Wang Xiaobo and other writers’penalty description language style.
Tag Archive: Language
The Depiction of Penalty in Chinese New Era’s Fictions (Education Papers posted on October 20th, 2014 )
This thesis mainly focuses on the deviate components in’s language. is known as one of the most abundant novelists of English authors, and his language makes him both a great writer and an influential spokesman of the conscience of his age. Comments on Charles have never stopped. The earlier novels are always his most popular works. But in 1950s, European critics began to discover his artistry and great depth in the later works. Scholars have studied his working method, his relations with his public, and the reason of his popularity for all time. Dickens is also much discussed by Chinese scholars, who show their interest mainly on political problems implied in his novel (especially on humanism), his criticism on the contemporary society or his sympathy for the lower class people. In recent time, critics try to explore something original by weakening the boundary between content and form. Taking one with another, research on the aspects existing in Dickens’s novel has been the most compelling one.In this paper, the author tries to discuss the of his language shared by his novel. There are two reasons why the author has chosen such a topic: One is that it is the trend to study his works in a more comprehensive way rather than to focus on one single novel; the other is that so far there has been no systematic research on such a topic. The demonstration part will fall into three chapters: 1) the analysis of the phonological ; 2) the analysis of grammatical deviation; 3) the analysis of the deviation of tone.From the perspective of phonological deviation, in chapter one, the author attempts to probe into Dickens’s deviant use of language in such aspects as dialect, idiolect and typographical devices. Through the discussion, the author wants to prove that phonological deviation is an important device used by the writer to imply some specific information and thus shape various kinds of characters.Chapter two lays emphasis on the grammatical deviation and its artistic effects existing in Dickens’s novel. Using ungrammatical sentence is one effective device. It is mainly shown through four aspects: lack of verb, lack of deixis, mistaken use of adjective comparison, and using adjective adverbially. The other device used by the writer is syntactic deviation, which is embodied in five sentence types: 1) parallelism (deliberate repetition); 2) cumulative sentence; 3) periodic; 4) multiple negation; 5) special use of simple form. Through grammatical deviation, Dickens’s intended to express his ironic intention towards the society or a specific people, arousing readers’ emotion, reaching mock reality.Chapter three studies Dickens’s deviation of tone. Deviation of tone happens when the mood used by a writer distinguishes from what the reader thinks it should be. The author of this paper talks about it through the following three aspects: 1) deviation existing in conversational tone; 2) deviant factors in defeated expectation; 3) understatement. From the discussion we can see that deviant use of tone is one effective method to defeat or arouse readers’ feelings. Deviant use of tone in everyday communication can create a comic effect, in which a sarcastic intention often implies.The concluding part offers a brief summary of the accomplishment of Dickens’s deviant language. It points out that his high plane of writing technique lies in the vivid expression of plots and utterance features. He used the deviant devices successfully, showing originality in his literary works. First of all, the advantage of deviation embodies in his figures, through which one’s status, character, or even life experiences all unfold before our eyes. Secondly, when telling about background, deviant devices put dynamic changes into the plot. They, like episodes in a piece of music, will please the reader. can display the tone of a novel. Dickens, by using deviation, endowed every of his figures with specific characteristics, showing his ironic tone towards them through the delicately arranged plots.Deviation can make Dickens’s works more impressive. But more importantly, it makes them much deeper and delicate. Deviation is not equal to twist. It helps the writer to show us caricatures of all sorts.This thesis offers a new angle for the critics who are interested in Dickens and his works. It is useful both for the linguistic and ideaistic study of his novel. However, it is only a beginning. It needs a further study by the author and anyone who is also interested in this topic.
The Expression of the Design Language in the Packaging Graphic Design (Education Papers posted on October 4th, 2014 )
In addition to the bustling modern city, manifested in the forest of tall buildings, the steady stream of vehicles, people with different kinds of dress on the outside, it mainly those in the business district where a dazzling array of goods displayed on the color variety. The different colors and packaging of goods for such an atmosphere adds a fashionable and modern.With the development of commodity economy, the objective needs of the packaging made more demands, to participate in the market circulation of competition. The new design language into the logical design of business which is to contribute to greater success in marketing. The market gradually grouping, super account of very direction, leading to the design concept, formal constantly updated. Attractive packaging design, production and marketing in the process played an important role.Packagingin graphic language, is the use of graphic elements in the visual communication aspects of intuitive, rich and lively nature of the product content and accuracy of the information conveyed to consumers, and by virtue of graphic visually attractive to consumers caused by psychological response, and then guide the buying behavior. Good packaging products, can be the case in the absence of writing, through the visual language to communicate silently, it can cross geographical restrictions, breaking through language barriers, integration of cultural differences, so as to achieve the artistic effect of a silent infection.
The cognitive, social, and affective dilemmas of Generation 1.5 English language learners: 1990–2011 (Education Papers posted on April 12th, 2014 )
This study examines the academic,, and personal challenges of Generation 1.5 linguistic minority students who were born and raised in Canada but spoke a language other than English in the home. Specifically, a cohort of six Generation 1.5 respondents were interviewed and discussed their experiences of facing challenges because of discrepancies between their values, beliefs, and home traditions and the expectations of educators, which hindered not only academic process, but also precipitated personal losses, including identity confusion. Additionally, this project explores how the Ministry of ’s policy regarding the support of this demographic group within the publically funded educational system has evolved over the last 21 years, examining the types of responses that have been generated to foster the academic development of Generation 1.5 linguistic minority students.
Tutor Training in a Canadian University’s Academic Writing Centre: An Ethnographic Study of the Pre-Service Training and Socialization of Junior Tutors (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )
Academic writing centres, like the Academic Writing Centre (AWC), depend on a pre-service training program to prepare new tutors to teach academic writing alongside other more experienced tutors. This ethnographic study explores the effectiveness of the current pre-service training program employed by the AWC. Drawing on Engeströ；m’s (1987) cultural-historical activity theory, Schö；n’s (1983) “reflective practitioner” theory, Lave and Wenger’s (1991) “situated learning” theory, and rhetorical genre theory to build an analytical framework, this study considers how the AWC’s cultural-historical context influences its practices, how senior tutors define current pre-service training practices, and how junior tutors are socialized into the AWC. Over a six-month period, three kinds of data were collected and analyzed recursively (Charmaz, 2006): interviews with five tutors and three coordinators (present and former), observations recorded in detailed field notes, and various documents from the AWC. Findings from the study suggest that the training provided to junior tutors, shaped by a complex web of inside and outside influences, is effective in preparing the tutors to work with student writers.
The invisible and the visible: Language socialization at the Chinese Heritage Language School (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
The present study explores the language socialization of a group of China-born and American-born children who are Mandarin learners at the Lu Xun Chinese HeritageSchool in the Southwestern U.S. Theoretically, the study follows a new paradigm in language socialization research which focuses on second language contexts and uses multiple sources of data to investigate the dynamic nature of the process through which learners are socialized into a new language and cultural environment. Specifically, the study explores how members of a small Chinese community in a major city contribute to the maintenance of the Chinese language and culture by transmitting their cultural values to their children through school and home contexts, and how the children react to the efforts made by their instructors, parents and other caregivers. Ethnographic in nature, the study was conducted by adopting a variety of methods such as participant observation in the classroom and the community, interviews with parents, instructors, and children, and dinner table talk. A total of twelve students, fifteen parents, and two instructors participated in the study and all data were recorded with digital recording equipment. This study adds to the current literature about how linguistic and cultural knowledge are constructed through each other in different heritage language learning contexts, and what role children/novices and adults/experts play as active and selective agents in the process of language socialization within these contexts.
The ethnolinguistic identity of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus’ first-year college students and their attitudes towards the learning of English as a second language (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
Day by day teachers and professors have to deal with students attitudes no matter what class they teach. English is not an exception. As a matter of fact, according to experts and to different studies that have been carried out on the Island, English has proved to be one of the subjects in which the attitudes of the students would vary greatly. On the other hand, the results of standardized tests administered on the Island show that the English scores of these tests seem to be getting lower. Experts in the matter say that even when the Puerto Rican students want to learn English, there are few who get to be bilingual. Moreover, after more than one hundred years of North American presence in the Island, there is only around a 25% of bilinguals in Puerto Rico. For more than a century, this problem has acquired great proportions. Both, the first American authorities and the current Department ofhave tried to solve it with no apparent success. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of 1st year Puerto Rican college students towards the learning of the English language in relation to their ethnolinguistic identity. The importance of studying attitudes can be traced back to studies, even before the seventies, that state how attitudes will either inhibit or promote the learning of a language. The study was a descriptive one, performed with a sample of two hundred nine first year students of the College of General Studies in the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus. It was guided through two research questions: 1) What attitudes towards English as a second language do the University of Puerto Rico 1 st year students possess? 2) Is there a relationship between these students attitudes towards ESL and their ethnolinguistic identity? The students were picked by means of a convenience sample, after having made the appropriate arrangements with the professors of the College of General Studies who ceded time of their classes for the study. The students were tested during their English classes. The instruments went through a validation process which not only included the aspect of using questionnaires that had been used for other researches, but also that of evaluating these same questionnaires with both a retrotranslation process and an Expert Judgement process. Afterwards, a pilot test was carried out with a group of first and second year students of both the UPR in Bayamon and the UIPR, Bayamon Campus, in order to detect any bias or difficulty previous to the real study. To analyze and interpret the results, frequency counts and percents were run for both questionnaires and they were subsequently correlated by using Pearson. The expected correlation was not found between the two variables. Instead, according to the study, the students seemed to have both a positive attitude towards English as well as a healthy Ethnolinguistic vitality. Therefore, the correlation shown was, the strongest the ethnolinguistic identity, the more positive the attitude towards a second language. Further studies are recommended to continue improving the quality of ESL on the Island.
The expression of temporality in the written discourse of L2 learners of English: Distinguishing text-types and text passages (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
The interlanguage discourse hypothesis Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, 1995, 2000) predicts that language learners use their developing systems of temporal expression to distinguish the main route known as foreground) from side routes known as background) in a narrative text, as is found cross-linguistically in L1 narratives Labov & Waletsky, 1967； Hopper, 1979). Questions have been raised, however, as to whether this phenomenon is an artifact of narrative discourse structure Hopper & Thompson, 1980； Caenepeel & Moens, 1994, Bardovi-Harlig, 2000), or whether grounding distinctions are made in non-narrative texts as well. If learner non-narrative text-types do not reveal temporally distinct main and side structures in the discourse, the interlanguage discourse hypothesis may need to be restated as the interlanguage narrative hypothesis. The current cross-sectional study of 270 essays from 90 learners writing two non-narrative essays and one narrative essay indicates that learners produced texts with temporal profiles that distinguished the narrative from the two non-narratives, and the two non-narratives from each other as indicated by use of past or nonpast time orientation, stative or dynamic verb-types, modality, and a variety of other linguistic resources with temporal features. In addition, learners at all levels of proficiency used temporal expression to produce two types of side passages in the non-narrative texts. Thus, the addition of non-narrative text-types results in broader support for the interlanguage discourse hypothesis. The analysis of learner narratives has provided greater evidence for the development of the perfective than the imperfective Kumpf, 1984； Veronique, 1987； Trevise, 1987； Flashner, 1989； von Stutterheim, 1991； Bardovi-Harlig, 1995), but this too, may be an artifact of narrative discourse structure, since the foreground of narratives privileges the use of the perfective. Although there was development of some temporal features modal types, stative inventories, passive, perfect, and adverbial repertoires) with greater proficiency, overall there was little evidence for the development of the imperfective. Be and can dominated the stative and modal types； the progressive, passive, and perfect were seldom used, and except for more passives in the higher proficiency argument essays, the narrative text-type promoted their use more than the non-narrative text-types.
The perception and production of second language stress: A cross-linguistic experimental study (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
This study investigates the effect of native language L1) stress properties on the second language L2) acquisition of primary word stress in light of two recent typological hierarchical models of stress: the Stress Deafness Model SDM) Peperkamp & Dupoux 2002) and the Stress Typology Model STM) Altmann & Vogel 2002). Since research on the L2 performance of a diverse sample of L1s with respect to both perception and production using the same experimental design is virtually non-existent, advanced learners of English from seven distinct L1 groups Arabic, Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Turkish), as well as native English speakers participated in perception and production experiments. Novel words of two, three, and four syllables length consisting of only open syllables CV) were used. In the perception experiment, subjects listened to a large number of tokens of various structures and marked the most stressed syllable； in the production experiment, subjects were asked to read aloud tokens from a subset of the structures. The results indicate that, on the one hand, learners with predictable stress in their L1 i.e., Arabic, Turkish, French) had problems perceiving the location of stress but they performed most like the English native speakers in production, who applied a frequency-based common strategy. On the other hand, learners without word-level stress in their L1 i.e., Chinese, Japanese, Korean) or with unpredictable L1 stress Spanish) showed almost perfect perception scores； however, their productions were quite different from the control groups. Thus, it was found that good perception does not necessarily underlie good production and vice versa. While the current findings go contrary to predictions made by the SDM, the STM can explain both the perception as well as the production results.s with predictable stress, unpredictable stress, and without stress are included in this hierarchical model with branching parameters. It was found that positive parameter settings impede the perception of L2 stress, while the mere setting of the topmost parameter in the hierarchy i.e., yes/no stress language) and thus experience with stress in the L1 determines the rate of success in production, although L1s with non-predictable stress face further challenges.
Grammar and agency in L2 pragmatic proficiency: Toward an integrated view of L2 pragmatics (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
The paper suggests an integrated model of L2 pragmatics that claims that L2 pragmatic competence is grounded in L2 learners’ agency, whereby they employ discursive practices to define and redefine their identities. Grammar is subordinated to the role of tool to express pragmatic messages in an L2. The framework builds on the notion of agency based on poststructuralists’ idea of language practices and a Bakhtinian perspective on language use. It seeks to integrate, or rather reconcile, two major approaches to the notion of L2 pragmatics in the modern SLA theory (Firth and Wagner, 2003). The cognitive approach, inspired by the Chomskyan view of L2 pragmatics as an area of communicative performance rather than competence, is found to lack a way of incorporating possible non-linguistic influences on L2 pragmatics. The other,-anthropological, approach, focusing primarily on learners’ individual differences and stemming from Hymesean views developed by Canale and Swain (1980), is seen to pay little attention to the linguistic-system internal dimension of L2 pragmatic ability. To support the model, the proposal reports on a pilot study that shows that participants with similar grammatical competence but different agencies may demonstrate different L2 pragmatic abilities. Inspired by the results of the initial pilot study, the dissertation undertakes a second study, which incorporates concepts from the psychology research and builds on authentic linguistic data. It involves highly proficient learners of English, who despite their similar grammatical competence show different levels of L2 pragmatic proficiency. The differential success of the participants is explained through the notion of agency and other related components of the suggested integrated model of L2 pragmatics.