The present study explores the language socialization of a group of China-born and American-born children who are Mandarin learners at the Lu Xun Chinese Heritage Language School in the Southwestern U.S. Theoretically, the study follows a new paradigm in language socialization research which focuses on second language contexts and uses multiple sources of data to investigate the dynamic nature of the process through which learners are socialized into a new language and cultural environment. Specifically, the study explores how members of a small Chinese community in a major city contribute to the maintenance of the Chinese language and culture by transmitting their cultural values to their children through school and home contexts, and how the children react to the efforts made by their instructors, parents and other caregivers. Ethnographic in nature, the study was conducted by adopting a variety of methods such as participant observation in the classroom and the community, interviews with parents, instructors, and children, and dinner table talk. A total of twelve students, fifteen parents, and two instructors participated in the study and all data were recorded with digital recording equipment. This study adds to the current literature about how linguistic and cultural knowledge are constructed through each other in different heritage language learning contexts, and what role children/novices and adults/experts play as active and selective agents in the process of language socialization within these contexts.
Tag Archive: Language
The invisible and the visible: Language socialization at the Chinese Heritage Language School (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
The ethnolinguistic identity of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus’ first-year college students and their attitudes towards the learning of English as a second language (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
Day by day teachers and professors have to deal with students attitudes no matter what class they teach. English is not an exception. As a matter of fact, according to experts and to different studies that have been carried out on the Island, English has proved to be one of the subjects in which the attitudes of the students would vary greatly. On the other hand, the results of standardized tests administered on the Island show that the English scores of these tests seem to be getting lower. Experts in the matter say that even when the Puerto Rican students want to learn English, there are few who get to be bilingual. Moreover, after more than one hundred years of North American presence in the Island, there is only around a 25% of bilinguals in Puerto Rico. For more than a century, this problem has acquired great proportions. Both, the first American authorities and the current Department of Education have tried to solve it with no apparent success. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of 1st year Puerto Rican college students towards the learning of the English language in relation to their ethnolinguistic identity. The importance of studying attitudes can be traced back to studies, even before the seventies, that state how attitudes will either inhibit or promote the learning of a language. The study was a descriptive one, performed with a sample of two hundred nine first year students of the College of General Studies in the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus. It was guided through two research questions: 1) What attitudes towards English as a second language do the University of Puerto Rico 1 st year students possess? 2) Is there a relationship between these students attitudes towards ESL and their ethnolinguistic identity? The students were picked by means of a convenience sample, after having made the appropriate arrangements with the professors of the College of General Studies who ceded time of their classes for the study. The students were tested during their English classes. The instruments went through a validation process which not only included the aspect of using questionnaires that had been used for other researches, but also that of evaluating these same questionnaires with both a retrotranslation process and an Expert Judgement process. Afterwards, a pilot test was carried out with a group of first and second year students of both the UPR in Bayamon and the UIPR, Bayamon Campus, in order to detect any bias or difficulty previous to the real study. To analyze and interpret the results, frequency counts and percents were run for both questionnaires and they were subsequently correlated by using Pearson. The expected correlation was not found between the two variables. Instead, according to the study, the students seemed to have both a positive attitude towards English as well as a healthy Ethnolinguistic vitality. Therefore, the correlation shown was, the strongest the ethnolinguistic identity, the more positive the attitude towards a second language. Further studies are recommended to continue improving the quality of ESL on the Island.
The expression of temporality in the written discourse of L2 learners of English: Distinguishing text-types and text passages (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
The interlanguage discourse hypothesis Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, 1995, 2000) predicts that language learners use their developing systems of temporal expression to distinguish the main route known as foreground) from side routes known as background) in a narrative text, as is found cross-linguistically in L1 narratives Labov & Waletsky, 1967； Hopper, 1979). Questions have been raised, however, as to whether this phenomenon is an artifact of narrative discourse structure Hopper & Thompson, 1980； Caenepeel & Moens, 1994, Bardovi-Harlig, 2000), or whether grounding distinctions are made in non-narrative texts as well. If learner non-narrative text-types do not reveal temporally distinct main and side structures in the discourse, the interlanguage discourse hypothesis may need to be restated as the interlanguage narrative hypothesis. The current cross-sectional study of 270 essays from 90 learners writing two non-narrative essays and one narrative essay indicates that learners produced texts with temporal profiles that distinguished the narrative from the two non-narratives, and the two non-narratives from each other as indicated by use of past or nonpast time orientation, stative or dynamic verb-types, modality, and a variety of other linguistic resources with temporal features. In addition, learners at all levels of proficiency used temporal expression to produce two types of side passages in the non-narrative texts. Thus, the addition of non-narrative text-types results in broader support for the interlanguage discourse hypothesis. The analysis of learner narratives has provided greater evidence for the development of the perfective than the imperfective Kumpf, 1984； Veronique, 1987； Trevise, 1987； Flashner, 1989； von Stutterheim, 1991； Bardovi-Harlig, 1995), but this too, may be an artifact of narrative discourse structure, since the foreground of narratives privileges the use of the perfective. Although there was development of some temporal features modal types, stative inventories, passive, perfect, and adverbial repertoires) with greater proficiency, overall there was little evidence for the development of the imperfective. Be and can dominated the stative and modal types； the progressive, passive, and perfect were seldom used, and except for more passives in the higher proficiency argument essays, the narrative text-type promoted their use more than the non-narrative text-types.
The perception and production of second language stress: A cross-linguistic experimental study (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
This study investigates the effect of native language L1) stress properties on the second language L2) acquisition of primary word stress in light of two recent typological hierarchical models of stress: the Stress Deafness Model SDM) Peperkamp & Dupoux 2002) and the Stress Typology Model STM) Altmann & Vogel 2002). Since research on the L2 performance of a diverse sample of L1s with respect to both perception and production using the same experimental design is virtually non-existent, advanced learners of English from seven distinct L1 groups Arabic, Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Turkish), as well as native English speakers participated in perception and production experiments. Novel words of two, three, and four syllables length consisting of only open syllables CV) were used. In the perception experiment, subjects listened to a large number of tokens of various structures and marked the most stressed syllable； in the production experiment, subjects were asked to read aloud tokens from a subset of the structures. The results indicate that, on the one hand, learners with predictable stress in their L1 i.e., Arabic, Turkish, French) had problems perceiving the location of stress but they performed most like the English native speakers in production, who applied a frequency-based common strategy. On the other hand, learners without word-level stress in their L1 i.e., Chinese, Japanese, Korean) or with unpredictable L1 stress Spanish) showed almost perfect perception scores； however, their productions were quite different from the control groups. Thus, it was found that good perception does not necessarily underlie good production and vice versa. While the current findings go contrary to predictions made by the SDM, the STM can explain both the perception as well as the production results. Languages with predictable stress, unpredictable stress, and without stress are included in this hierarchical model with branching parameters. It was found that positive parameter settings impede the perception of L2 stress, while the mere setting of the topmost parameter in the hierarchy i.e., yes/no stress language) and thus experience with stress in the L1 determines the rate of success in production, although L1s with non-predictable stress face further challenges.
Grammar and agency in L2 pragmatic proficiency: Toward an integrated view of L2 pragmatics (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
The paper suggests an integrated model of L2 pragmatics that claims that L2 pragmatic competence is grounded in L2 learners’ agency, whereby they employ discursive practices to define and redefine their identities. Grammar is subordinated to the role of tool to express pragmatic messages in an L2. The framework builds on the notion of agency based on poststructuralists’ idea of language practices and a Bakhtinian perspective on language use. It seeks to integrate, or rather reconcile, two major approaches to the notion of L2 pragmatics in the modern SLA theory (Firth and Wagner, 2003). The cognitive approach, inspired by the Chomskyan view of L2 pragmatics as an area of communicative performance rather than competence, is found to lack a way of incorporating possible non-linguistic influences on L2 pragmatics. The other, social-anthropological, approach, focusing primarily on learners’ individual differences and stemming from Hymesean views developed by Canale and Swain (1980), is seen to pay little attention to the linguistic-system internal dimension of L2 pragmatic ability. To support the model, the proposal reports on a pilot study that shows that participants with similar grammatical competence but different agencies may demonstrate different L2 pragmatic abilities. Inspired by the results of the initial pilot study, the dissertation undertakes a second study, which incorporates concepts from the social psychology research and builds on authentic linguistic data. It involves highly proficient learners of English, who despite their similar grammatical competence show different levels of L2 pragmatic proficiency. The differential success of the participants is explained through the notion of agency and other related components of the suggested integrated model of L2 pragmatics.
The discursive construction of subject positioning, power, and language ideologies among adult immigrant learners of English (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
This critical ethnographic study of adult immigrant learners of English highlights the discursively constructed nature of language learning, power relations, and language ideologies. It draws on varied data gathered over the two-year duration of the project, including video tapes of the participants interacting in their community center ESL classroom, audio-taped interviews with each focus participant, detailed transcripts, the researcher’s written reflections following each weekly ESL class, and outside-of-class observations. The study adopts a Foucauldian view of the microdynamics of power and draws on Davies and Harre’s (1990) positioning theory in considering how individuals’ differing displays of English knowledge in the context of an ESL classroom can position them as good or poor language learners. In taking this approach, this study suggests that language ability ought to be understood as emergent in the moment-by-moment development of interactions, with some options more ratified than others depending on the situated activity, thereby foregrounding the relational aspects of learning as well as the limitations to notions of general linguistic competence among learners. It also considers the possibilities for learner empowerment from a critical pedagogy perspective. Through close analysis of classroom interactions, the study demonstrates some of the paradoxes and tensions that accompany critical pedagogical practices as well as institutional and interactional constraints in bringing about empowerment among adult immigrant learners. Lastly, it examines how language ideologies, particularly those that legitimate the dominant role of English in American contexts, were produced in the mundane interactions of the study’s participants. By framing these beliefs as discursive constructions, the study problematizes the inevitable and seemingly natural status of these “common sense” beliefs. At the same time, it suggests that adult immigrants’ utterances regarding the role of English in their lives are uniquely situated to challenge status quo beliefs, even if only subtly and indirectly, because of the struggles these individuals experience in learning and using the language.
Sociocognitive influences on strategies for using language in English for academic purposes: Two case studies (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
This study examines the sociocognitive variables that influence the strategy choices of two international students in academic programs in the United States. The term “sociocognitive” refers to the interaction between an individual and his or her sociocultural context, as defined by Bandura 2001). In this definition, an individual cognitively responds to social and cultural elements through strategies that are intended to exert some measure of control over his or her environment. This cognitive response manifests in the setting of goals and the implementation of strategies to reach those goals. In the case of international students studying in the United States, the goal is ultimately to obtain a degree, which itself entails the successful integration of the student into an academic program through the acquisition of an appropriate style of English and a certain level of academic literacy. Despite extensive research, there have been few syntheses of cognitive and sociocultural variables in the fields of language learning strategies and academic literacy, resulting in gaps in our understanding of how students succeed in their academic programs. One of the tasks of this study is to synthesize these strands of research by utilizing a sociocognitive framework. The findings consist of case studies of two international students, one in law school, and the other in an MBA program. Cognitive and sociocultural variables are identified and examined through an analysis of syllabi, assigned readings, think-aloud protocols, strategy logs, and interviews. Further analysis by category of the participants cognitive responses to their sociocultural elements indicates that the most consistent influence on their strategy choices was their learning styles. This finding confirms and expands Cohens 2003) hypothesis that strategy use can be predicted by an analysis of task and learning style.
Assessing reasoning through writing: Developing and examining approaches based on psychological and linguistic theories (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
One of the primary purposes of education is the development of students reasoning abilities. However, the assessment of reasoning using written essays can be problematic because the scoring rubrics used for these assessments often contain undefined terms and vague criteria. Therefore, this study focused on the development and examination of two new approaches for assessing reasoning through writing. The first approach, termed model assessment, was based on the psychological theory of mental models. Model assessment was used to identify myside and otherside positions and their supporting reasons. The second approach, termed elemental assessment, was based on the linguistic theory of systemic functional grammar. Elemental assessment was used to examine the presence of conjunctions and conjunctive adjuncts. These two approaches were employed to assess a sample of high school students N ＝ 156) persuasive essays. The model and elemental assessments of these essays were compared to holistic and analytic ratings of the same essays and to students scores on standardized tests of reasoning ability and language arts achievement. Nearly all students presented myside positions and supported these positions with general, rather than personal, reasons, but only half of the students presented an otherside position. Also, students with average scores on a verbal reasoning composite were more likely to present an otherside position than were students with low scores on that composite. The model assessment produced two generalizable factors, Myside Reasons and Otherside Viewpoint, but the elemental assessment did not produce interpretable factors. Both the model and elemental assessments captured small, non-significant proportions of variance in tests of reasoning abilities. Results from this study suggest that greater attention should be focused on the context in which the assessment of reasoning through writing occurs, as well as the materials used to conduct these assessments. In future studies, participants should be more thoroughly prepared for the tasks on which they will be assessed.
The question of transferability: What students take away from writing instruction (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
Writing courses are required in the college curriculum because composition instruction is presumed to equip undergraduates for the demands of educated literacy. Thousands of writing teachers across the nation, dutifully reading and responding to student writing, assume that their well-intentioned labors succeed in teaching students to write. With so much good faith thus at stake, it is crucial to ask: Does writing instruction work the way teachers assume? Students, however, often report that they learn how to write, not from composition teachers, but from practice over time in classes that require written performance. I argue that it is time to question what students take away from writing instruction. Highlighting the gap between pedagogy as imagined by academics and as experienced by students, Lee Ann Carroll coins the term faculty fantasies for academic illusions about writing and learning to write. Many language scholars doubt what a general composition course can accomplish, given the context-dependent nature of writing. This dissertation questions the transferability of writing instruction and works toward a solution to the current crisis in the field of rhetoric-composition by synthesizing scholarship and research. Turning to the newly reconceptualized field of genre studies as a promising approach to teaching writing that transfers, I examine the effects of a genre-based pedagogy that emphasizes genre, not as text types, but as rhetorical social action. I conducted ethnographic writing research that tracks the learning experiences of participants for two in some cases, three) years following a genre-based approach. Participants with a solid grasp of rhetoric and genre function were able to translate their knowledge into an accelerated ability to learn how to learn to write in new discursive situations. Transferability is not open to facile explanations； the complexity of learning to write has yet to be fully explained. But focusing the goals of writing instruction on rhetorical awareness and genre analysis, rather than on improving writing in general, holds the promise of a pedagogy that carries over into the actual literacies of students writing in college and beyond:
Pronunciation instruction, learner awareness and development (Education Papers posted on March 23rd, 2013 )
This study investigates the growth in phonological awareness and the speech development of 8 adult Mandarin speakers during an 8-week ESL pronunciation course focused on prosody. In addition to documenting instruction during the course, the study further examines participants self-reported exposure to English and independent pronunciation practice. Classroom observation data were gathered using field notes and an activity checklist. Retrospective interview data were collected weekly concerning participants noticing of phonological forms, and participants independent practice and exposure to English. Interview data were analyzed qualitatively to identify learners areas of focused attention and how their attention was employed in applying their new prosodic knowledge. Speech samples were taken before T1), immediately after T2), and 2 months after the course T3). These samples were analyzed linguistically for segments, speech rate, dysfluencies and sentence stress. Holistic ratings by two experienced ESL teachers were used to evaluate intonation. The course centered on intonation and stress. Most activities were teacher-centred, listen and repeat exercises, with a focus on individual production. Participants reported more awareness of the need to both stress and reduce words to achieve rhythm, the need to link words, and to employ a wider range of intonation. Participants also reported that they had been unaware of how syllables are stressed, how phrasing is indicated by pitch changes and how gestures are culturally based. Participants demonstrated individual attentional orientations and revealed different levels of awareness: noticing, reporting the rule, and reporting use of the rule in context. Linguistic analysis showed little speech change across time for the group as a whole. Intonation ratings revealed a slight positive trend, although conclusions are limited by low intonation rater agreement at T2. Five of the eight participants reported improved English comprehension, and it is probable that perception improved before production. Those with more exposure to English tended to perform better than those with less. Results strongly suggest that explicit teaching in conjunction with meta-linguistic discussion raise awareness of phonological form. Overall the findings suggest that prosody is worth teaching, but a limited number of participants in a unique teaching context limit the generalizability of the findings.