Tag Archive: InformationScience

Adolescents’ information behavior when isolated from peer groups: Lessons from new immigrant adolescents’ everyday life information seeking (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources—their peer groups—in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the studys purpose, sixteen recently arrived three years or less) Korean immigrant adolescents 12 and 18 years old) were recruited through snowballing and convenience samplings. For data collection, a mixed method including survey and in-depth interview was employed through three research phases. First, participants demographic profiles and their information use environments [IUEs] were described through survey and interview Phase I: Survey/In-depth Interview). Second, participants isolated status was measured with three measurement scales and the motivation and contextual backgrounds of the survey results were analyzed via interview Phase II: Surveys/In-depth Interview). Third, isolated Korean immigrant adolescents migration journey and their information needs and seeking behaviors were described in interviews Phase III: In-depth Interview). Finding: In analyzing the study participants everyday life information seeking and their contextual features, such as their isolated condition and motivation for migration, a preliminary understanding of isolated adolescents information world was gained: how they interpret their current situations and daily hassles, seek or do not seek), and utilize information to cope with their daily life problems, and evaluate their use of information, including library systems and interpersonal sources. In particular, three main information needs were found: ELIS Need 1—English language skills to facilitate learning activities in school in the United States; ELIS Need 2—Social skills to facilitate making friends and to become accustomed to American culture and normative behaviors; ELIS Need 3—Study skills to facilitate academic success in highly competitive educational environments in Korea. To fulfill their cognitive needs—ELIS Need 1 and ELIS 3—the participants usually sought parents, teachers, Internet sources, and DIY. For their socio-affective needs—ELIS Need 2, they used guidance or counseling from their parents or selected passive coping strategies, such as the ignorance of their reality or information-avoiding. Their main information needs were usually satisfied through the information sources provided by their family members—parents. Conclusion: Five main emergent themes were analyzed from the findings six categories of findings) and pertinent theories/models to interpret these unique features were suggested and discussed: Parents attachment in information seeking and uses Theme 1); Dependence on interpersonal information sources Theme 2); Information Ground Theme 3); Two-step flow Theme 4); Passive information-seeking, information-avoiding and ignorance Theme 5). Also, this study suggested some empirical alternatives and implications to improve isolated immigrants information world: 1) Peer-mentoring program; 2) Immigrant parents school involvement/parents Education; 3) Teachers Education of cultural competence skills; 4) Library PR; 5) Library outreach to whole immigrant family members as a unit. Finally, the contributions of the study in several key areas, the limitation of this study and future studies—to supplement the limitation of this study and to interpret the emergent unique Social and information phenomena—were suggested and discussed.

Case Study of E-book Use in an Academic Library: A Communication Perspective (Education Papers posted on April 12th, 2014 )

This research examines the integration of electronic book (e-book) technology within an academic library. The University of Ottawa library is explored as a qualitative case study. The perceptions of use and communication pertaining to e-book adoption from the perspectives of students, faculty members, and librarians are combined with other documentation to provide a comprehensive examination of the case. Rogers (1962; 2003) Diffusion of Innovations provides the theoretical framework to guide the study and structure its analysis. Main findings revealed the following: (1) participants preferred print books, (2) inadequate communication occurred between students, faculty members, and librarians, and (3) information literacy training initiatives were insufficiently standardized. This study contributes to communication research by examining adoption of e-book technology and the spread of ideas within a Social environment. It also furthers Diffusion of Innovations by confirming that even when individuals acknowledge advantages of a communication technology, it is not necessarily adopted.

Knowledge Management Maturity Model: Theoretical development and preliminary empirical testing (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )

While the field of knowledge Management has received widespread attention from practitioners and scholars, it suffers from a lack of reliable and scientifically grounded metrics to measure the processes and outcomes of such efforts. Today, managers have to rely on anecdotal descriptions to justify knowledge Management efforts. Lacking a meaningful framework for describing the trajectory of knowledge Management, it is viewed as a fad by many. In this research, we propose a Knowledge Management Maturity Model [KM-MM]. This model is grounded in the science of semiotics, and is comprised of four components related to knowledge management; sources management, analytics management, meaning management, and action management. Collectively, these four components constitute the set of activities an organization must execute in order to manage knowledge. For each of the phases, five levels of maturity are identified: ad hoc, reactive, appreciative, organized, and optimized. The KM-MM will enable organizations to evaluate, assess, and benchmark their knowledge management efforts. The metrics that emerge from the model can be used to improve an organization’s knowledge management agenda. The focus of this dissertation will be to validate the components of knowledge management—sources management, analytics management, interpretation management, and action management and to uncover critical practices conducted by organizations when managing each component of knowledge management.

Supermarket “loyalty” cards and consumer privacy education: An examination into consumer knowledge about cards’ data collection function (Education Papers posted on March 25th, 2013 )

Developments in information technology have created new data privacy challenges for consumers. To address this growing problem, the educational community needs to determine how individuals navigate the consumer privacy landscape Long et al., 1999), how knowledge influences peoples ability to cope with privacy issues Culnan, 1993), and how Education can help consumers protect themselves Nakra, 2001). Since most privacy concerns involve the collection of personal data Petty, 2000), this study focuses on supermarket “loyalty” cards, a widely used data collection device Janoff, 2000). The data for this study was collected through a quantitative survey of 397 grocery shoppers in 5 U.S. cities. The research is presented in a three-article format, guided by the following questions: Q1) Why do shoppers believe stores offer card programs? Q2) Do shoppers know that grocery cards are used to record personally-identifiable purchase data? Q3) What factors are associated with this awareness? Q4) Is exposure to privacy Education related to knowledge of data collection? Q5) Does subjective knowledge moderate the effect of Education on objective knowledge? Q6) How is exposure to stores card promotion related to subjective knowledge? Q7) Do shoppers “forget” that cards collect data? Q8) Does exposure to pro-card promotion moderate the effectiveness of education? The studies major findings are: 1) Shoppers believe stores offer cards primarily to attract customers and offer discounts. 2) Only 8% of shoppers knew, without prompting, that cards are used to collect personally identifiable purchase data. An additional 17% “remembered” after being prompted. 3 & 4)This knowledge is positively associated with exposure to privacy education and higher education overall. 5) High self-assessed knowledge about cards is positively associated with retaining educational messages about cards data-collection function. 6) On average, self-assessed knowledge increases with promotional exposure. 7) Shoppers do appear to forget that cards collect their data. 8) Exposure to pro-card promotional messages actually increases the effectiveness of consumer privacy messages on consumer knowledge.

Knowledge management: Evaluating strategies and processes used in higher education (Education Papers posted on March 25th, 2013 )

The promise of Knowledge Management KM), coupled with ever-growing academic and intellectual resources, has led Higher Education Institutions HEI) to explore strategies aimed at increasing knowledge-based activities with common organizational goals. The goal of this dissertation was to ascertain whether the KM process used in business and industry is applicable in the field of higher Education.This study investigated the integration of KM initiatives into the organizational culture of HEIs by utilizing a case study method. The qualitative methods used in this study are designed to gain a deeper understanding of KM processes within HEIs. The study began with the case study selection. The approach used related research fields of knowledge Management, learning organizations, knowledge Management systems, teaching and learning theories and balanced scorecard theory to explore the case. Prior to the examination of the case a modified was conducted Delphi study to develop questions applicable to KM in the higher education environment. Through triangulation three types of evidence questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis) were used to analyze and report the results of using KM in an HEI. The results demonstrated several important findings: first, teaching and learning can be enhanced by using KM, that is, what the institution knows is easily shared among all members when KM is used. Second, respondents reported that the KM development was of significant help for knowledge workers at an HEI, especially in the area of research. While the results revealed strong support for KM usage at JSU, there was also a recognition of the weakness of specific KM performance results in some aspects of the KM program, especially in the areas that required knowledge sharing among different departments. Lastly, recommendations for further research are offered in order to help identify successful KM initiatives in HEIs.

Making the most of connections: Illinois license-exempt child care providers’ use of information about early childhood education and care (Education Papers posted on March 23rd, 2013 )

In 2004, public funding underwrote the cost of child care services for over 1.7 million children from income-eligible families in the United States. About 1 in 4 American children served by these subsidies is cared for in a setting where a state-issued license to operate is not required, but in many states the percentages are quite higher. In Illinois, the use of license-exempt child care accounts for nearly half of all children receiving services via the states child care subsidy program, a level that directly impacts more than 150,000 children and their families each year. Making the Most of Connections is a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative data to examine license-exempt child care providers knowledge of available information resources about early childhood Education and care. Original data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered by telephone to a random sample of 102 license-exempt child care providers across Illinois in September 2005. Family members, 69% of whom are the grandmothers of the children in care, are the most common types of license-exempt caregivers. These providers are very interested in learning more about helping children enter kindergarten prepared to succeed in school, and they would look to local schools and teachers as sources for information on school readiness. Illinois license-exempt child care providers perceive that getting information online would be more convenient than attending on-site training. Most of them have a Computer at home and are connected to the Internet. Taken together, these findings reveal new possibilities for using online technology as a tool for providing technical assistance to this vitally important sector of the states early childhood workforce. Recommendations call for a re-doubling of efforts to connect license-exempt child care providers more closely to the Illinois formal early childhood professional development system, acting on the potential for making use of the Internet to connect them with information and each other, and piloting a strategy for supporting local school sites as the logistical gateways for connecting license-exempt providers with online resources to inform their caregiving practices.

Clean coal rhetoric: Engaging the public on informal education websites about science and technology (Education Papers posted on March 22nd, 2013 )

Some scientific and technological problems require public engagement. Engagement, defined in this situation as a level of interest or Investment that fosters changing attitudes and behavior, can be achieved through informal Education websites that present scientific arguments to a general audience. These websites function as boundary objects between the scientific community and the general public, noticeably affecting the audiences attitudes and opinions about the science in question. This study focuses on several website elements stimulating engagement on two informal Education websites that present clean coal technology, an advanced effort to increase the efficiency of coal power while capturing coal powers greenhouse gas emissions. Informal Education websites about clean coal technology are challenged to supplant the publics misgivings about coal with acceptance and even excitement. To examine the ways in which these two websites attempt to engage their audiences and the ways in which those audiences respond, this study uses three methods. The first is a rhetorical analysis of the engaging elements present on the websites. The second is a user survey that collects data about a test audiences response to those engaging elements. The last is an interview process designed to collect further detail about individual survey participants reactions. Generally, the study found that even if users react negatively to specific website elements, they are often willing to separate that reaction from their response to the information presented. The results suggest that website elements designed to engage the audience might be useful as long as they do not obstruct the audiences access to content they find interesting. The results of the study further suggest methods to refine the study of audience engagement as a goal of online communication.

Usability and effectiveness evaluation of a course-advising chat bot (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

This research explored whether a course-advising chat bot could be used for academic advising in terms of its functionality and interface effectively. The research evaluated the usability and effectiveness of the chat bot with a usability test, comparing it with a menu-driven FAQs frequently asked questions) system. For the test, both the course-advising chat bot LISAbot), and the menu-driven FAQ system LIS FAQ), have been created. The LISAbot was built a knowledge-base database implemented in AIML Artificial Intelligence Markup Language). This knowledge base was customized for the Library and Information Studies LIS) graduate program at University at Buffalo and covers various types of queries for course advisement. It also has an interactive interface, where the user can type questions in directly, and an avatar and voice response answers along with the textual response. The LIS FAQ was built based on a preferred FAQ interface and the content obtained from a FAQ interface web-survey and user interviews. The LIS FAQ is a text-based system to enable users to find information using a typical web page interface that includes organized text and hyperlinks. A total of sixteen LIS graduate students participated in the usability test. The functionality was assessed in terms of task completion, perceived effectiveness, ease of use, learnability, and ease of searching. LISAbot was ranked highly for its functionality. In addition, perceptions regarding interface preference, character preference, and features in the LISAbot have positive evaluations. The results of the usability test suggest that the LISAbot is a promising solution for supporting the course-related questions in terms of the functionality and interface for searching information. However, the analysis of LISAbot logs and user feedbacks shows that there are some challenge that need to be addressed to enhance functional effectiveness.

Clean coal rhetoric: Engaging the public on informal education websites about science and technology (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

Some scientific and technological problems require public engagement. Engagement, defined in this situation as a level of interest or Investment that fosters changing attitudes and behavior, can be achieved through informal Education websites that present scientific arguments to a general audience. These websites function as boundary objects between the scientific community and the general public, noticeably affecting the audiences attitudes and opinions about the science in question. This study focuses on several website elements stimulating engagement on two informal Education websites that present clean coal technology, an advanced effort to increase the efficiency of coal power while capturing coal powers greenhouse gas emissions. Informal Education websites about clean coal technology are challenged to supplant the publics misgivings about coal with acceptance and even excitement. To examine the ways in which these two websites attempt to engage their audiences and the ways in which those audiences respond, this study uses three methods. The first is a rhetorical analysis of the engaging elements present on the websites. The second is a user survey that collects data about a test audiences response to those engaging elements. The last is an interview process designed to collect further detail about individual survey participants reactions. Generally, the study found that even if users react negatively to specific website elements, they are often willing to separate that reaction from their response to the information presented. The results suggest that website elements designed to engage the audience might be useful as long as they do not obstruct the audiences access to content they find interesting. The results of the study further suggest methods to refine the study of audience engagement as a goal of online communication.

Usability and effectiveness evaluation of a course-advising chat bot (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

This research explored whether a course-advising chat bot could be used for academic advising in terms of its functionality and interface effectively. The research evaluated the usability and effectiveness of the chat bot with a usability test, comparing it with a menu-driven FAQs frequently asked questions) system. For the test, both the course-advising chat bot LISAbot), and the menu-driven FAQ system LIS FAQ), have been created. The LISAbot was built a knowledge-base database implemented in AIML Artificial Intelligence Markup Language). This knowledge base was customized for the Library and Information Studies LIS) graduate program at University at Buffalo and covers various types of queries for course advisement. It also has an interactive interface, where the user can type questions in directly, and an avatar and voice response answers along with the textual response. The LIS FAQ was built based on a preferred FAQ interface and the content obtained from a FAQ interface web-survey and user interviews. The LIS FAQ is a text-based system to enable users to find information using a typical web page interface that includes organized text and hyperlinks. A total of sixteen LIS graduate students participated in the usability test. The functionality was assessed in terms of task completion, perceived effectiveness, ease of use, learnability, and ease of searching. LISAbot was ranked highly for its functionality. In addition, perceptions regarding interface preference, character preference, and features in the LISAbot have positive evaluations. The results of the usability test suggest that the LISAbot is a promising solution for supporting the course-related questions in terms of the functionality and interface for searching information. However, the analysis of LISAbot logs and user feedbacks shows that there are some challenge that need to be addressed to enhance functional effectiveness.