Tag Archive: Health

1.Evidence-based Study of the Effect of Alkaline Ionized Water on Health 2.Status of Copper, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc Nutrition and Strategy of Pregnant Women in Baotou City (Education Papers posted on February 27th, 2015 )

Objective To collect and analyze both Basic and clinical research papers about the effect of alkaline ionized water on the Health of both domestic and foreign people,so as to either determine the specific effect of alkaline ionized water on the Health of people or identify the related content to be further investigated regarding to the relation between alkaline ionized water and the Health of people,which will help to guide the proper consumption of alkaline ionized water. Methods The electronic search of Science Citation Index (SCI),Medline/Pubmed,CNKI,CQVIP,WANFANGDATA was conducted by two researchers independently to retrieve papers related to the effect of alkaline ionized water on the health of people and those papers were further classified and analyzed through Cochrane systematic review. Results Out of 50 papers retrieved initially,36 papers passing through quality appraisal were chosen for further analysis with 35 as Basic research papers and 1 as clinical research paper. Conclusion Both domestic and foreign research papers studying the effect of alkaline ionized water on the health of people are scarce in number,and most of them are concentrated in the field of Basic research lacking randomized comparative clinical study that is strictly designed. The results of most of the papers suggest that alkaline ionized water is conducive to the health of people. However,this conclusion is drawn based on the result of low quality research lacking enough credible evidence. Thus,this issue awaits thorough research in the future to confirm the conclusion. Objective Investigation determined that the peripheral blood of pregnant women in Baotou City of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc values and the 5 elements nutrition knowledge, analysis of these factors the level of 5 elements, suggesting that the fetus Baotou nutritional status of the 5 elements, develop Baotou City, the 5 elements of pregnant women nutritional guidance intervention model for the relevant departments to carry out a focused nutrition of pregnant women to provide scientific basis for guiding intervention. Method Baotou City Family Planning Commission issued in 2009 based on growth targets, according to District of Baotou City, stratified proportional sampling, uniform training by the investigators after the spot asked the basic situation of pregnant women surveyed, fill in copper, iron , Calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge questionnaire. by Beijing Bo Hui Optoelectronic Technology Co., Ltd. production BH5100 atomic absorption spectrometry for copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels of detection. Results (1)the general characteristics of the surveyed women: survey of 500 pregnant women, age distribution 20-42 years, mean age (27.45±3.70) years; the Han nationality, accounting for 91.2%, 4.4% Mongolian, Hui account 2.4%, 2.0% other ethnic groups; now living in 278 cities, accounting for 55.6%, suburban 56, accounting for 11.2% of the 166 people in rural areas, accounting for 33.2%. (2) pregnant women, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels: 500 pregnant women, copper, iron, magnesium, calcium, zinc nutrition of all abnormal phenomena, the normal rate as follows: Copper 95.4%, 64.2% iron, calcium 77.6%, Mg 91.0%, 87.5% zinc, and copper deficiency was not found iron, magnesium is too high, the high copper, high zinc, calcium, zinc deficiency rate of 10% or less, while the highest rate of 35.8% iron deficiency, high rate of 14.4% calcium. 5 elements in iron nutrition is unreasonable to the most serious problem at least copper. (3) copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc values with age, educational level, ethnic and other general characteristics of the relationship: women abnormal rate of these 5 elements in different age groups, ethnic groups showed no significant difference between ; iron, calcium, abnormal rates of different living compared to the difference was statistically significant, pregnant women living in rural areas of iron, calcium abnormal rate; abnormal levels of iron of different cultures was statistically significant difference compared rates, low educational level of iron for pregnant women abnormal rate; iron, magnesium, zinc and abnormal pregnancy rate between different statistically significant difference, the third trimester of pregnant women iron, magnesium, zinc anomaly rate. (4) copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels of factors: After a multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that:①the impact of factors Copper and soybean and its products is a high frequency of copper consumption as a risk factor.②the impact of iron deficiency factors shellfish consumption frequency of iron deficiency as a risk factor; residence city, meat consumption frequency, the frequency of egg consumption, focusing on diet, occupation is the protection of Medical personnel is a factor in iron deficiency.③factors focus on the impact of calcium deficiency diet, the frequency of milk consumption, shellfish consumption frequency of the protective factors to calcium deficiency; live in rural areas is a risk factor for calcium deficiency.④the impact of factors calcium city of residence, occupation farmer, shellfish consumption frequency of milk consumption frequency of risk factors is calcium. The impact of factors⑤magnesium consumption frequency of vegetables, focusing on diet, magnesium magnesium deficiency on the fetus important protective factors.⑥The influencing factors of zinc deficiency of liver and kidney consumption frequency, consumption frequency of vegetables, eggs, food frequency, pay attention to diet, occupation is the Medical staff are protective factors magnesium deficiency.⑦The influencing factors of high zinc consumption frequency of shellfish, liver and kidney consumption frequency, city of residence is a high risk factor for magnesium. (5)copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition of the state of knowledge: women to master the copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc level of knowledge is not high, especially for copper, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge about the less. 50.4% in the survey of pregnant women do not know the human body must be elements of copper, 42.6% of pregnant women do not know the magnesium and zinc is an essential element; survey of pregnant women foods high in iron and calcium than awareness of copper, magnesium, The awareness of high zinc foods. Conclusions (1) pregnant women in Baotou City, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition is more prevalent anomaly, should attract attention to the relevant departments, improve maternal and child health network, and improve various security systems, and timely monitoring and guidance to carry out the corresponding work, low educational level should low-income rural pregnant women and professional groups for domestic and unemployed persons to work as a focus of nutrition Education. (2) pregnant women in Baotou City of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron nutrition-related knowledge, calcium is relatively low outside the other, copper, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge there are more problems, should be strengthened in the areas of health Education propaganda, conducting various forms of health Education activities carried out in densely populated nutrition lectures, distribution and other relevant information to improve the nutrition of women of childbearing age on their own importance.

Comparative Analysis of Soil Microbial Flora of Diffrerent Forests in Tonglu and Tiantai of Zhejiang Province (Education Papers posted on February 25th, 2015 )

Soil microbe as an important component in forest ecosystem,which was used as an indicator to evaluate forest Health, plays an important role in energy flow of soil and progress of material cycle. Therefore, it was significant to investigate the effects of floristic changes in soil microbe of forest on the healthy development of forest ecosystems.In the present study, three woodlands were chosen from Tonglu, Zhejiang Province: Broadleaf forest (sample A), Masson pine-broadleaved mixed forest (sample B), and Masson pine plantation (sample C), and two woodlands were chosen from Tiantai:Masson pine forest (sample D) and Broadleaf forest (sample E), all of which were performed microbiotic comparative analysis. Microflora in 0~50 cm soil layers of aboved 5 woodlands was observed using morphological analysis combined with molecular biology identification. The main results were as followed:1. The results showed that the quantitative proportions of microorganism in 5 forests communities were:Bacteria was the main microbial group, followed by actinomycetes, and eumycete was smallest.2. There were significant differences with a vertical distribution in the quantity of soil microbe, the surface layer of which was significant higher compared to bottom layer, and all the vertical distributions of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes had a gradually decreasing tendency with the increase of the soil depth.3. There were significant differences of the quantity of soil microbe and distribution of dominant species in different forests and different seasons suggesting that the season, the differences of forest vegetation and edaphic condition were the principal factors to affect the quantity of soil microbe.(1) The comparison of bacteria flora in 5 forests:The quantities of bacteria in 5 forests:There was three significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C in the surface layer, while no significant difference between sample D and E. There was significant differences bacteria quantities between sample B and A、C, and between sample D and E in the bottom layer, while no significant difference between sample A and C.The quantities of bacteria in the four seasons:in sample A and B germ had the maximum number in winter in two soil horizons. The surface layer of sample C and D, germ had the maximum number in winter and in the bottomsoil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample E surface layer, the peak of germ number appearred in spring and in bottom layer, it appearred in summer.The dominant species of soil bacteria were Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus.(2) The comparison of fungi flora in 5 forests:The quantities of fungi in 5 forests:There was three significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C in the surface layer, while significant difference between sample D and E. There was significant differences fungi quantities between sample A and B、C in the bottom layer, while no significant difference between sample A and C, and between sample D and E.The quantities of fungi in the four seasons:in sample A, fungus’number had the maximum number in summer in two soil horizons, and fungus’number had the maximum number in fall in two soil horizons of sample B. The surface layer of sample C, fungus’number had the maximum number in summer and in the bottom soil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample D, the number reached its maximum in summer in two soil horizons. And in sample E, the fungus’number of two soil horizons reached its maximum in summer.The dominant species of soil fungi included Mortierella, Aspergillus,Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium.(3) The comparison of actinomycete flora in 5 forests:The quantities of actinomycete in 5 forests:There was significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C, and between sample D and E in the surface layer, while no significant difference between sample B and C. There was three significant differences actinomycete quantities between sample A and B、C, and between sample D and E. in the bottom layer.The quantities of actinomycete in the four seasons:in sample A, actinomycetes’number had the maximum number in summer in surface layer, while actinomycetes’ number of bottom layer had the maximum number in winter. Actinomycetes’number of sample B,it had the maximum number in winter, while the number reached its maximum in spring in bottom layer. The surface layer of sample C, Actinomycetes’ number had the maximum number in summer and in the bottom soil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample D, the number reached its maximum in winter. As for bottom layer, it was in sunmmer. And in sample E, the actinomycetes” number of two soil horizons reached its maximum in summer.The dominant species of soil actinomycete were Streptomyces, Nocardia,Micromonospora and Kitasatospora.

Microelement Influence of Physical Development of Preschool Children (Education Papers posted on February 16th, 2015 )

Iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium five-element is the bases toguarantee the normal growth and development of the preschool children. Theaim of this article is to comprehensively understand the current state of thefive elements in the pre-school children’s blood and their influence on thepre-school children’s growth in Tanggu District, Tianjin. The five elementsnormal reference range should also be established for the children aged 3-6 inthis region. It would provide a basis for guiding parents and child healthworkers to prevent the lack of five elements for pre-school children.Most of the test for the iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium fiveelements only limited the simple processing to the results, and the groupcontrast to the age, region, etc nowadays. The article detailed statisticalanalysis the lack of five elements for the preschool children in gender, age,region and disorders with obesity, anemia, malnutrition, dental caries, pooreyesight, as well as the relationships with the disorders, so that the normalreference range of the five elements is set out in the region.We selected 3,681 school children of nine kindergartens of this region inthe cluster sampling method in 2010, collected fasting blood in peripheral ringfinger, determinate the level of the five elements with atomic absorptionspectrometry, detected the hemoglobin concentration by the hemoglobinanalyzer, and did the physical examination to the children’s height, weight,facial features, teeth, chest, head circumference, to evaluate them withevaluation of reference standards of physical development. The normalreference range was obtained according to the calculation method of thenormal reference range in “Health Statistics”. The relationships with a varietyof disorders could be got by comparing the five elements of normal preschoolchildren and with obesity, anemia, malnutrition, dental caries, and pooreyesight.It shows that the situation of lack of five elements for preschool childrenTanggu District, Tianjin is better than the corresponding groups in the citiesof equal rank nationwide. Growth and developments are also in good condition.But the government and Health workers should still step up publicity. Meanwhile parents should also be reasonably adjust the dietary structure anddo well the early prevention, and choose the most appropriate time toappropriately add the microelements.

The Impact of Health on Non-Agriculrural Employment (Education Papers posted on November 24th, 2014 )

The transfer of Agricultural labor to non-Agricultural industries will be an important Economic phenomenon in a long period of time in China. Non-Agricultural employment plays a very important role in improving the income of the farmers, reducing rural-urban gap, promoting the urbanization process and improving the country’s comprehensive Economic strength. To individual farmers, the behavior of non-agricultural employment is the competitive selection of human capital. Human capital includes Health and Education, training and migration as Health is the basis for the other three parts. If people lose their health, their access to other kinds of human capital will be restricted. Besides, this restriction can not be make up alternatively by other means. Because one’s freedom and ability to choose has been destroyed from the bottom.Based on this, the study of health effects on non-agricultural employment has important practical significance. In the perspective of human capital, this paper describes the Basic characteristics, the health status and the non-agricultural employment situation of the rural labor force in nine provinces of China, using China Health and Nutrition Survey Data in2006. Statistics found that the proportion of non-agricultural employment has increased. But there is a big gap between male and female non-farm employment levels. Male’s non-agricultural employment rate is almost double that of women. Then, the article explores the simple correlation between health status and the non-agricultural employment with indicators of different health dimensions. Preliminary analysis shows that non-agricultural labor force has a higher average height, a bigger average BMI value in male sample only, a lighter illness situation and a more optimistic self-reported health status than the agricultural labor force.In order to analyze the impacts of health on non-agricultural employment, Binary Probit Mode was used separately in three kinds of samples:total sample, male sample and female sample. The empirical result suggest that almost every aspect of health had significant impacts on non-agricultural employment:height has a positive impact for total sample especially for male sample to choose non-agricultural employment; BMI does not have notable impact for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment but has a positive impact for male; illness in a short term has a negative impact for total sample especially for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment; self-reported health has a positive impact for both male and female sample on non-agricultural employment.According to the findings of this research, the author advises that the government should not only improve the rural Medical services and security system but also implement measures of rural children’s nutrition improvement to increase rural labor’s health human capital comprehensively.

Study on Evaluation of Human Resources Policies in Community Health Services (Education Papers posted on November 9th, 2014 )

ObjectiveOn the basis of analyzing existing data including statistical yearbook, this research described the Basic situation and problems of human resources in community Health service organizations. Then the paper collected human resources policies in community Health services and evaluated the training and personnel policies. according to the results ,successful experience from home and abroad should be learned to promote our primary health workforce, In the end, the paper put forward countermeasures and suggestions to improve the existing human resources policies in community health services.Methods1.Literature analysisCollect and summarize theory and practice related to community health human resources by accessing to Medline,CBM,CNKI and other network database.Then, it can offer helpful reference to the research.2.Stakeholder analysisDefine key stakeholder of community health manpower policies such as goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident. Explore the interaction of their behavioral characteristics and study the conflict of their interest points and the constraint relations.3.Questionnaire methodTake Hubei Province as the typical survey area and carry out investigation in Wuhan and prefecture-level city. Conduct a questionnaire survey of staff in community health care orgnization to learn the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of huaman resources policies in community health services. 4.Statistical methodUse statistical software SPSS13.0 to analyze the staff composition, age structure, Education constitution ,etc of community health manpower. Use descriptive analysis and chi-square test to evaluate policies of community health training and personnel.Results(1)The number of community health staff is in rapid growth, but there are some problems as follows. The quality and operational standards of Community health workers is low; nursing staff is in shortage and out of proportion to the Medical staff; the professional of public health staff is also low.(2) Evaluate the training and personnel policies and learn information as follows.Most people do not know much about training policy in community health services; the necessity of training policy is recognized, 91.1 percent of people think it is necessary to carry out training; the methods, content and assessment way of training policy need to be improved; training is effective,but the rules of training policy is not clear enough; the average importance score of human resources and financial resources are both 3.76, ranking first in the resources; the implementation of the training policy is not bad, only 12.9 percent of people choose the answer of”bad”.most people do not know much about personnel policy either,only 28.7 percent of people have a deeper understanding of personnel policy; the necessity of training policy is also recognized, but it need to be improved; the effect of personnel policy is not strong, negative attitude of the people accounted for 28 percent while 25 percent of people hold positive attitude; the rules of training policy is not clear enough,work experience has impact on the judgment of it; financial resource is the most important resource to implement the personnel policy; more than half of the people think the implementation of personnel policy is not so good.(3)Suggestions: take various training methods and effectively improve the operational standards of community health workers; update training content to meet the practical needs of community residents; accelerate the training of community health nurses and improve their services capacity; establish mechanism that Medical promotion should be linked with participation in community health services; encourage the rational personnel flow, strengthen the community health personnel; increase community health workers’income and ensure the stability of personnel; strengthen community health prevention and care teams and raise the capacity of responding to public health issues; recruit some people to ease the shortage of community health workers.Innovation and limitationsInnovation: The research innovatively evaluate community health manpower policies through qualitative and quantitative methods.Moreover,the research defines goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident as key stakeholder of community health manpower policies and do stakeholder analysis.Limitations: The survey is done only in Hubei province due to time, manpower and funding constraints,and the number of sample is limited; policy evaluation is seldom used in health field and few useful experience can be learned;the research only evaluate the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of training and personnel policies and the contents are not detailed and comprehensive.

The Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine Health Management Mode (Education Papers posted on November 8th, 2014 )

At present,our country is in a rapid development, innovatiaon eta,Chinese national spirit civilization and material civilization level arc rising steadily.The government attaches great importance to the masses of life and Health and life quality,from several aspects of strengthening national Health managemrnt.Because the Health conceptcs of change, people no longer focus on after I hecame ill treatments.but paying more attention to the prevention and care before sicken.This shows that our country has entered a health,disease and treatment reinterpret stage However,China’s current personal health Management models are corny imitation foreign Management methIod,ignored our advantageous prerequisites.lack of TCM charateristic with the health management mode,traditional Chinese medicine and the special role and influence not given proper play.Especially need attention,both in modern medicine and in traditional Medical single theory under the guidance of the health management. can realize the comprensive and systematic ensure national health purpose.this also is now China’s health management market chaotic the main reason for the lack of competitivenss.Only the essence of both the place has selectively fusion,can achieye better health management effect. This paper USES theoretical comparison,document analysis,set the brain will commercial research methods,a systematic theory of Chinese and foreign related health management were studied.The use surveys law in Hardin diffrent cultural background,professional,and age group conducted sampling investigation,and understand the health of people surveyed the health management cognition,Chines medicine non-drug therapy and Chinese medicine health care each year,the application method of health care and Medical expenses investigation into amount and the most attention health management crowd.Based on the analysis of the survey results.as can be engaged in Harbin city at present mainly health management institution – comprehensive hospital and independent health management institution, in providing health management service did not play its role,with charac teristic of traditional Chinese medicine health management philophy has not get promotion. accord with China’s national conditions and the level of economin development.give full play to the special advantage of traditional chinese medicine health management mode has not yet fully established.On this basis.this paper puts forward based on modern medicine and traditional medicine theory and technical combination of health management pattern design framework.If further implement,can satisfy all levels Basic health management service demand erowd,improve peorove’s health level and reduce disease and tuus a good way to solve the difficult,people ” the doctor see problms such as your Realization of TCM characteristic with everyone,safe and effective,convenient diverse,low health management services.We can believe,has the characteristic of traitional chinese medicine health management model conforms to our country Medical health system reform is to solve the diection of people’s livelihood.an effective measures.

Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Physical Education at a Selected Elementary School (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

The motivation for this study stemmed from a lack of understanding of why members of an elementary school community did not support the physical Education program. The purpose of this study was to understand teachers’, administrators’, and parents’ perceptions about the value and importance of physical Education at the school. Guided by the transtheoretical and cognitive evaluation theories, both of which focus on the motivation to change, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions of members of an elementary school community in the southern United States about the value and importance of the school’s physical Education program. Twelve stakeholders (teachers, administrators, and parents of children enrolled at the school) participated in interviews for the study. Typological and inductive analyses of the data yielded emergent themes on communication, Health, lifelong learning of physical education, positive experiences of physical education, scheduling, and Social aspects of physical education. The key finding was that communication is necessary for an effective physical education program. This finding would advance practice by improving communications between the physical education teacher and members of the elementary school community. The implication for positive Social change comes from guidelines about improved communications between the physical education teacher and administration, school personnel, parents, and students at the participating elementary school. This improved communication will increase the support for the physical education program, and in turn, will benefit the students who participate in a more effective physical education program.

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An investigation of a theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience in middle adolescents (Education Papers posted on April 12th, 2014 )

The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model to better understand resilience and its direct and indirect effects on theorized Health outcomes in middle adolescents. The study empirically tested the direct effects of resilience on a) hope, b) well-being, and c) Health-promoting lifestyles, and the direct effects of hope on d) well-being and e) Health promoting lifestyles. The indirect effects of resilience on a) well-being, and b) health-promoting lifestyle through hope were also examined. The final sample of 311 of middle-adolescents, aged 15 to 17, was recruited at a northern New Jersey public high school. Participants completed the demographic data sheet and four instruments measuring the study variables during their regularly scheduled health classes. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. Results indicated that resilience had a direct effect on hope Gamma = .66, p < .001), well-being Gamma = .44, p < .001), and health-promoting lifestyles Gamma = .56, p < .001). Hope also had a direct effect on well-being Beta = .42, p < .001), and health-promoting lifestyle Beta =.26, p < .001). Resilience had an indirect effect on both well-being and health-promoting lifestyle through hope. The unhypothesized correlated error term between well-being and health-promoting lifestyle, the two dependent variables, was psi = 0.13, p < .001. All of the seven hypotheses in this study were derived from theory and were supported empirically, providing evidence of the predictive power of the theoretical propositions tested. Therefore, it can be concluded that resilience has direct positive effects on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents, and that hope had direct positive effects on well-being and health-promoting lifestyle. Additionally, resilience has an indirect effect on well-being and health-promoting lifestyle through hope in middle adolescents. Finally, it can be concluded that resilience is a strong predictor of hope and that resilience is a better predictor than hope for the two health-related outcomes, well-being and health-promoting lifestyle.

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Youth Taking Action to Improve their Sex Education at Bellman Secondary (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

Educational decision-makers rarely legitimize youths perspectives in constructing “effective” sex Education. In this study, I concentrated on what students have to say about this aspect of their educational experience, and learned how decision-makers respond to youths perspectives. I draw on Michel Foucaults notions of discourse, power, and resistance to understand the importance of listening to students marginalized voices and legitimizing their subjugated knowledges. I then discuss the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, drawing attention to its assertion that youth have rights to learn about sexual Health and to participate in sex Education. I also draw on constructs of democratic Education and student empowerment to argue that youth have expertise and so can express “what is” and “what must be” in dialogue with decision-makers. With the goal of initiating and facilitating Youth Participatory Action Research, I entered Bellman Secondary where I mobilized a research collective with youth partners. The youth learned about research ethics and the interview method prior to addressing the following questions: 1) What are students perspectives of their sex education at Bellman? 2) How would students change the sex education offered at Bellman, if they could? The youth interviewed Grade 12 students, inviting them to problematize their sex education experiences, critique the curricular rules, and cross the disciplinary limits with the aim of identifying transformative possibilities that would satisfy their sexual Health needs. The collective analyzed the data and showcased our findings in an action plan, titled Sex-E-cation. In order to incite and inform curricular change, the team presented Sex-E-cation to students and two decision-makers—a Health Teacher and School Administrator—with the aim of informing dialogue. Given that these decision-makers failed to participate in the study, it is unclear if they took students perspectives into consideration to make sex education more relevant to their lives. While those inside Bellman never participated by responding to the action plan, two outsider decision-makers—a School Nurse and Learning Coordinator—did participate in this way. They planned to take transformative action to rectify problems, and thereby improve students sex education so it satisfies their expressed needs. Keywords: sexual health education, youth, Foucault, democratic education, expressed needs.

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Training law enforcement in mental health: A broad-based model (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )

Police officers respond to many calls involving people suffering from a mental illness; yet many law enforcement training programs and workshops do not include mental Health training. A literature review was conducted to explore the problems resulting from the lack of mental Health training available for law enforcement officers and identify specialized training programs currently being implemented to address those problems. The review identified several program models being implemented throughout the United States including: Joint Police/Mental Health Team Model, Mobile Crisis Unit Model, Crisis Intervention Team Model, and the Broad-Based Training Model. These models include empirically supported components used to increase learning and decrease stigma and result in significantly reduced arrest rates of the mentally ill and increase the safety of interactions between law enforcement and the mental health community. A broad-based training seminar was presented to volunteers from local policing agencies. A pre and posttest analysis revealed significant positive changes in attitude, behavior, and improved knowledge of mental health issues as a result of the training. The limitations of the current research and the future implications in regard to the safety of law enforcement and the safety of those affected by mental illness are discussed.

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