Tag Archive: Health

A Kap Study of HIV/AIDS Among the Migrant Population in Railway Stations in Henan Province (Education Papers posted on April 25th, 2015 )

The purpose of the KAP study were to understand the related knowledge , attitude and practice to HIV/AIDS and condom utilization of migrant population. in railway station in Henan province; to explore the necessity and feasibility of Health Education and condom Social marketing targeting at the above-mentioned mobile population; and to build up a set of feasible approach to educate migrant population and develop a practicable condom Social marketing program.The study was designed and conducted at the 3 railway stations in Henan Province, namely Zhengzhou, Luoyang and Xinyang. Three hundred and fifty sample individuals were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and eleven individuals were interviewed with the discussion guideline. The investigated content focused on knowledge and attitude to HIV/AIDS, attitude and utilization of condom and attitude to Health Education. The results showed that most of the migrant population had poor knowledge and the attitude of stigma and discrimination to HIV/AIDS ; the needs to condom is higher and condom can be available variously; they expressed positively attitude to HIV/AIDS Health Education as well. The results also identified that HIV/AIDS education to migrant population is necessary and practicable based on railway department as well as condom Social marketing. Some suggestions were given as following: as earlier as possible to develop HIV/AIDS education program and condom social marketing program among the migrant population who travels by train; to develop proper methods to educate the migrant population in HIV/AIDS program.

Changchun Urban District Encircles the Perimenopausal Woman State of Health Analysis (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2015 )

Goal: In order to understand the Changchun urban perimenopausal women’s Health and behaviour, in order to have targeted them for Health Education and health interventionsMethod: On a voluntary survey of 550 urban areas in Changchun City women aged 40 to 60 conducted a questionnaire survey of 530 valid questionnaires recovered. All material into its analysis. Age: 40 to 45-year-old 178 cases (33.58%), 46 to 50-year-old 180 cases (33.96%), 51 to 55-year-old 100 cases (18.87%), 56 to 60-year-old 72 cases (13.58 percent). The average age of 48.79 years old.Finally:①530 perimenopausal women, who accounted for 35.28 percent menopause; average menopausal age of 48.58 years old.②perimenopausal women’s health status and behavior of all ages in between are very different; perimenopausal symptoms improved to the extent Kupper – man score assessment, perimenopausal symptoms rate was 64.34 percent of which occur most symptoms .The first four are: insomnia accounted for 52.64 percent, 50.19 percent of fatigue fatigue, muscle and joint pain accounted for 48.49 percent, 43.58 percent of dizziness. Hypertension, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, urinary system diseases and diabetes in perimenopausal women occupy a considerable proportion, and in the distribution of all ages are also significant differences. ③part of perimenopausal women’s health awareness is not strong, lack of health knowledge. The low awareness of hormone replacement therapy, hormone therapy are rarely accepted.④depression mainly to mild disease, and depression, anxiety disorder incidence rate also increased significantly with age.⑤with age, but lower quality of life.Conclusion: Perimenopausal symptoms and the different extent and women in the age, Education level, Economic status, occupation-related, health awareness and understanding of hormone replacement therapy has yet to be improved, the impact of perimenopausal women’s quality of life in a variety of factors including demographic And sociological characteristics and therefore should take comprehensive measures to improve their quality of life.

Comparison of Socio-Economic and Health Status of urban Residents in Chengdu (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2015 )

Great achievements have been made in Economic and Social development in China over the past two decades. The living standard of the population has been improved remarkably. However, the income gap among different population groups has been widened in the same time. In 2005, the Gini Coefficient of income distribution of Chinese citizens has reached 0.45 which exceeds the alarming line of 0.4 being recommended worldwide. At present, urban poverty has become more prominent due to the great impact resulting from the transformation of Economic system in China. According to the report of Asia Development Bank, the Health condition of the poor urban citizens is generally worse than the general as a result of poor income and low consumption rates; the availability of Medical service for the poor urban citizens is lower than that for medium- and high-income urban inhabitants. All these problems are harmful for the overall improvements of the whole Health level. The problem of urban poverty has become an urgent challenge to the development of Chinese cities. It not only relates to the Social justice, but also affects the social stability. There are lots of studies on the problem of poverty, with the focus on the definition of poverty, the identificaton of poverty standard and poverty line, the causation of poverty, the living condition of poor people, and the mechanism and strategies of poverty assistance. However, few studies paid attention to the study of health condition of poor urban people and the related influencing factors. The study on health condition of poor people and the availability of Medical service mainly concentrate in rural countries. With sponsorship of the project of Urban Community Health and Poverty supported

The Status and Countermeasures Study of the Child Health Care Management in Fuling Chongqing (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2015 )

Objective: Through understanding of the children Health care managementstatus in FuLing district of Chongqing, Find the main problems.For thedistricts of chongqing and other area county public Health administrativedepartment of children’s Health care perfect Management system forreference.Methods: The study of domestic and foreign literature research ofchildren’s health care Management present situation; Using the expertsinterview method to explore child health care management system of themain problems existing in FuLing district; By questionnaire, extraction of100children in FuLing district of Chongqing to survey child health caremanagement satisfaction.Using EpiData3.1software built library entry fordata, and SPSS17.0software statistical index data and analysis.Results: The most index data of child health care management has achievetargets of the two development plans in FuLing district.But there are a fewindex to be further improved.Children’s health care.The contradictionbetween supply and demand of children’s health,Children health care costinsufficient Investment, child health care management mechanism stillimperfect, child health care management disability, child health care team construction lagging,propaganda and Education of children’s healthinadequate,and child health care significant gap between urban and ruralareas are the main problems of the child health care managementsystem.The child health care benefit group are very satisfied with childrenImmunisation Programme and Child health care propaganda, Butdissatisfied with Children health care cost Investment and Child health carepolicy and The child health care infrastructure.Conclusion: we should strengthen the relevant government departmentguidance; Paying more attention to and improve the pre-marital medicalexamination rate and improve the quality of the newborn; Improve theprogram for the development of children (planning) monitoring statisticsystem; Further strict appraisal system, make sure the program for thedevelopment of children (planning) successfully completed; Furtherdeepening the women and children health care management, continuallymeet the health needs of women and children; value the maternal and fetalhealth care; Actively developing newborn screening; Strengthen theprevention and control of diseases among children health care; Enhanceseriously threatened disease prevention and cure children’s life; Furtherintensify children’s immunization management and Increased effortsDianYan qualified edibleWork dynamics.

Study on Creating a Healthy City Urban Plan (2012-2020) in Zhuzhou (Education Papers posted on March 1st, 2015 )

Research Objectives:This study described the Basic situation and Health status of Zhuzhou through the investigation, set the expected target of index system using the benchmarking method, identified key areas and projects of the construction, provided the evidence base for the design of Zhuzhou’s Health action outline; Based on the research of the Zhuzhou’s action outline making process, we explored and established a healthy urban action program formulation process, which can provide experience for other cities to develop health action outline for reference.Specific purposes are as follows:1、Analysis on the Basic Economic and Social health situation of Zhuzhou;2、 Analysis and determine the index system of the urban plan;3、 Analysis the surveyed data, to obtain the Basic value of the indexes;4、 Develop guidelines of healthy city for action in Zhuzhou.Data Resources and Methods:Data of this study include three components:1. Some data of this study was from family questionnaire for Zhuzhou to create a healthy city urban plan, the contents including:socioeconomic characteristics of the population; health status, physical examination and doctors’ visiting because of illness; smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise and other health related behavior. The field survey was done in August2012in Zhuzhou’s four areas, a total of1000households using household interview method and received997valid questionnaires.2. Some other data was from institute statistics of Zhuzhou, such as department of health, the center for disease control and prevention, family planning and other departments. We extracted some data from the institutional ones, as baseline value of this index system.3. Literatures. This study searched Google scholar using healthy city, goal setting and priority setting as subject terms for English literature, searched CNKI for Chinese literature using healthy city as subject term, and acquired lots of documents and materials.In this study, we adopted the surveyed method of households and institutions, in addition, we also adopted in-depth interview method, literature research method and expert consulting method.Main Results:1) Analysis the basic Economic and Social situation and health status in Zhuzhou. Through analysis the basic situation of Zhuzhou, we found Zhuzhou’s economic development in forefront of Hunan province, the overall health level was higher than Hunan and national level; In recent years, through the efforts, Zhuzhou’s environment was also improved; The surveyed data shew that residents’ life behavior had large room for improvement. Zhuzhou’s health city construction will focus on improving the urban environment and advocating the good way of life behavior.2) Zhuzhou’s action outline of healthy city index system was developed. We constructed the indicator system by applying the method of literature research and expert consultation, combined with the availability and accuracy of the indexes, the feasibility of data collection, and predictability of indexes, ultimately determined index system included:11measures of economic and social environment such as “town dweller lowest life to ensure standard”,4measures of policy Management such as “cooperation of departments”,6measures of health indicators such as “average life expectancy”,9measures of health services such as “sports facilities per capita land area”,6measures of public opinion such as “civil satisfaction with public security”. There were a total of36indicators which fell into five categories.3) Analyzed the surveyed data and agencies” data, obtained the indexes” baseline values.”Town dweller lowest life to ensure standard” in2011was15%of wage standard, the rate of urban living garbage hazard-free treatment was100%, the rate of urban sewage concentrated was85%, and other indicators” baseline values from the index system. 4) Created a healthy city’s action outline (2012-2020) in Zhuzhou. This study adopted the method of benchmarking, with reference to healthy city index standards’ requirements, combined with the actual situation of Zhuzhou, set the healthy city index targets; Compared the indicators’baseline values and the expected targets, according to the multiple criteria decision analysis method, we sorted the existing problems, finally determined3tasks including “improving health environment”,”popularization of healthy life style” and “the task of building a healthy society”; Then we established powerful safeguard measures, the government as leader, coordination of departments, clearing each responsibilities, increasing government Investment, and etc.Conclusions:This paper studied the process of established Zhuzhou’s health city action outline, analysed the whole process. In the beginning of this study we decided to find current problems we were facing in Zhuzhou through analysis the basic situation, find the focus of health city construction; We constructed the index system of Zhuzhou healthy city using the literature research and expert consultation method, rather than Delphi method, so the scientific nature, the feasibility and reliability of index system need to be further verified; When using questionnaire and data we found that some data was missing or updated slowly, so it is necessary to set up health information Management system; This study also summarized the methods of setting goals and priority setting and we set target values of indexes and key areas scientifically, also we made the powerful safeguard measures.Suggestions:1) We should understand the health status of the city through field research and baseline data collection, which can provide evidence for setting appropriate expected targets;2) Set up a management system of health information, build a healthy city index system using scientific method, assess and update it regularly;3) Set a reasonable expected targets based on country’s requirements, combined with local actual situation;4) Using scientific methods to determine the priority in the construction field, formulate and improve relevant policies and priorities in the field of action items;5) Develop powerful safeguard measures, such as establish management system, fund input, etc;6) The construction of healthy city is a process, so we need to summarize periodically, step by step.

1.Evidence-based Study of the Effect of Alkaline Ionized Water on Health 2.Status of Copper, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc Nutrition and Strategy of Pregnant Women in Baotou City (Education Papers posted on February 27th, 2015 )

Objective To collect and analyze both Basic and clinical research papers about the effect of alkaline ionized water on the Health of both domestic and foreign people,so as to either determine the specific effect of alkaline ionized water on the Health of people or identify the related content to be further investigated regarding to the relation between alkaline ionized water and the health of people,which will help to guide the proper consumption of alkaline ionized water. Methods The electronic search of Science Citation Index (SCI),Medline/Pubmed,CNKI,CQVIP,WANFANGDATA was conducted by two researchers independently to retrieve papers related to the effect of alkaline ionized water on the health of people and those papers were further classified and analyzed through Cochrane systematic review. Results Out of 50 papers retrieved initially,36 papers passing through quality appraisal were chosen for further analysis with 35 as Basic research papers and 1 as clinical research paper. Conclusion Both domestic and foreign research papers studying the effect of alkaline ionized water on the health of people are scarce in number,and most of them are concentrated in the field of Basic research lacking randomized comparative clinical study that is strictly designed. The results of most of the papers suggest that alkaline ionized water is conducive to the health of people. However,this conclusion is drawn based on the result of low quality research lacking enough credible evidence. Thus,this issue awaits thorough research in the future to confirm the conclusion. Objective Investigation determined that the peripheral blood of pregnant women in Baotou City of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc values and the 5 elements nutrition knowledge, analysis of these factors the level of 5 elements, suggesting that the fetus Baotou nutritional status of the 5 elements, develop Baotou City, the 5 elements of pregnant women nutritional guidance intervention model for the relevant departments to carry out a focused nutrition of pregnant women to provide scientific basis for guiding intervention. Method Baotou City Family Planning Commission issued in 2009 based on growth targets, according to District of Baotou City, stratified proportional sampling, uniform training by the investigators after the spot asked the basic situation of pregnant women surveyed, fill in copper, iron , Calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge questionnaire. by Beijing Bo Hui Optoelectronic Technology Co., Ltd. production BH5100 atomic absorption spectrometry for copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels of detection. Results (1)the general characteristics of the surveyed women: survey of 500 pregnant women, age distribution 20-42 years, mean age (27.45±3.70) years; the Han nationality, accounting for 91.2%, 4.4% Mongolian, Hui account 2.4%, 2.0% other ethnic groups; now living in 278 cities, accounting for 55.6%, suburban 56, accounting for 11.2% of the 166 people in rural areas, accounting for 33.2%. (2) pregnant women, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels: 500 pregnant women, copper, iron, magnesium, calcium, zinc nutrition of all abnormal phenomena, the normal rate as follows: Copper 95.4%, 64.2% iron, calcium 77.6%, Mg 91.0%, 87.5% zinc, and copper deficiency was not found iron, magnesium is too high, the high copper, high zinc, calcium, zinc deficiency rate of 10% or less, while the highest rate of 35.8% iron deficiency, high rate of 14.4% calcium. 5 elements in iron nutrition is unreasonable to the most serious problem at least copper. (3) copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc values with age, educational level, ethnic and other general characteristics of the relationship: women abnormal rate of these 5 elements in different age groups, ethnic groups showed no significant difference between ; iron, calcium, abnormal rates of different living compared to the difference was statistically significant, pregnant women living in rural areas of iron, calcium abnormal rate; abnormal levels of iron of different cultures was statistically significant difference compared rates, low educational level of iron for pregnant women abnormal rate; iron, magnesium, zinc and abnormal pregnancy rate between different statistically significant difference, the third trimester of pregnant women iron, magnesium, zinc anomaly rate. (4) copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc levels of factors: After a multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that:①the impact of factors Copper and soybean and its products is a high frequency of copper consumption as a risk factor.②the impact of iron deficiency factors shellfish consumption frequency of iron deficiency as a risk factor; residence city, meat consumption frequency, the frequency of egg consumption, focusing on diet, occupation is the protection of Medical personnel is a factor in iron deficiency.③factors focus on the impact of calcium deficiency diet, the frequency of milk consumption, shellfish consumption frequency of the protective factors to calcium deficiency; live in rural areas is a risk factor for calcium deficiency.④the impact of factors calcium city of residence, occupation farmer, shellfish consumption frequency of milk consumption frequency of risk factors is calcium. The impact of factors⑤magnesium consumption frequency of vegetables, focusing on diet, magnesium magnesium deficiency on the fetus important protective factors.⑥The influencing factors of zinc deficiency of liver and kidney consumption frequency, consumption frequency of vegetables, eggs, food frequency, pay attention to diet, occupation is the Medical staff are protective factors magnesium deficiency.⑦The influencing factors of high zinc consumption frequency of shellfish, liver and kidney consumption frequency, city of residence is a high risk factor for magnesium. (5)copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition of the state of knowledge: women to master the copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc level of knowledge is not high, especially for copper, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge about the less. 50.4% in the survey of pregnant women do not know the human body must be elements of copper, 42.6% of pregnant women do not know the magnesium and zinc is an essential element; survey of pregnant women foods high in iron and calcium than awareness of copper, magnesium, The awareness of high zinc foods. Conclusions (1) pregnant women in Baotou City, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc nutrition is more prevalent anomaly, should attract attention to the relevant departments, improve maternal and child health network, and improve various security systems, and timely monitoring and guidance to carry out the corresponding work, low educational level should low-income rural pregnant women and professional groups for domestic and unemployed persons to work as a focus of nutrition Education. (2) pregnant women in Baotou City of copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron nutrition-related knowledge, calcium is relatively low outside the other, copper, magnesium, zinc nutrition knowledge there are more problems, should be strengthened in the areas of health Education propaganda, conducting various forms of health education activities carried out in densely populated nutrition lectures, distribution and other relevant information to improve the nutrition of women of childbearing age on their own importance.

Comparative Analysis of Soil Microbial Flora of Diffrerent Forests in Tonglu and Tiantai of Zhejiang Province (Education Papers posted on February 25th, 2015 )

Soil microbe as an important component in forest ecosystem,which was used as an indicator to evaluate forest Health, plays an important role in energy flow of soil and progress of material cycle. Therefore, it was significant to investigate the effects of floristic changes in soil microbe of forest on the healthy development of forest ecosystems.In the present study, three woodlands were chosen from Tonglu, Zhejiang Province: Broadleaf forest (sample A), Masson pine-broadleaved mixed forest (sample B), and Masson pine plantation (sample C), and two woodlands were chosen from Tiantai:Masson pine forest (sample D) and Broadleaf forest (sample E), all of which were performed microbiotic comparative analysis. Microflora in 0~50 cm soil layers of aboved 5 woodlands was observed using morphological analysis combined with molecular biology identification. The main results were as followed:1. The results showed that the quantitative proportions of microorganism in 5 forests communities were:Bacteria was the main microbial group, followed by actinomycetes, and eumycete was smallest.2. There were significant differences with a vertical distribution in the quantity of soil microbe, the surface layer of which was significant higher compared to bottom layer, and all the vertical distributions of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes had a gradually decreasing tendency with the increase of the soil depth.3. There were significant differences of the quantity of soil microbe and distribution of dominant species in different forests and different seasons suggesting that the season, the differences of forest vegetation and edaphic condition were the principal factors to affect the quantity of soil microbe.(1) The comparison of bacteria flora in 5 forests:The quantities of bacteria in 5 forests:There was three significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C in the surface layer, while no significant difference between sample D and E. There was significant differences bacteria quantities between sample B and A、C, and between sample D and E in the bottom layer, while no significant difference between sample A and C.The quantities of bacteria in the four seasons:in sample A and B germ had the maximum number in winter in two soil horizons. The surface layer of sample C and D, germ had the maximum number in winter and in the bottomsoil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample E surface layer, the peak of germ number appearred in spring and in bottom layer, it appearred in summer.The dominant species of soil bacteria were Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus.(2) The comparison of fungi flora in 5 forests:The quantities of fungi in 5 forests:There was three significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C in the surface layer, while significant difference between sample D and E. There was significant differences fungi quantities between sample A and B、C in the bottom layer, while no significant difference between sample A and C, and between sample D and E.The quantities of fungi in the four seasons:in sample A, fungus’number had the maximum number in summer in two soil horizons, and fungus’number had the maximum number in fall in two soil horizons of sample B. The surface layer of sample C, fungus’number had the maximum number in summer and in the bottom soil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample D, the number reached its maximum in summer in two soil horizons. And in sample E, the fungus’number of two soil horizons reached its maximum in summer.The dominant species of soil fungi included Mortierella, Aspergillus,Penicillium, Trichoderma and Cladosporium.(3) The comparison of actinomycete flora in 5 forests:The quantities of actinomycete in 5 forests:There was significant differences bacteria quantities between sample A and B、C, and between sample D and E in the surface layer, while no significant difference between sample B and C. There was three significant differences actinomycete quantities between sample A and B、C, and between sample D and E. in the bottom layer.The quantities of actinomycete in the four seasons:in sample A, actinomycetes’number had the maximum number in summer in surface layer, while actinomycetes’ number of bottom layer had the maximum number in winter. Actinomycetes’number of sample B,it had the maximum number in winter, while the number reached its maximum in spring in bottom layer. The surface layer of sample C, Actinomycetes’ number had the maximum number in summer and in the bottom soil layer, the number reached its maximum in fall. In sample D, the number reached its maximum in winter. As for bottom layer, it was in sunmmer. And in sample E, the actinomycetes” number of two soil horizons reached its maximum in summer.The dominant species of soil actinomycete were Streptomyces, Nocardia,Micromonospora and Kitasatospora.

Microelement Influence of Physical Development of Preschool Children (Education Papers posted on February 16th, 2015 )

Iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium five-element is the bases toguarantee the normal growth and development of the preschool children. Theaim of this article is to comprehensively understand the current state of thefive elements in the pre-school children’s blood and their influence on thepre-school children’s growth in Tanggu District, Tianjin. The five elementsnormal reference range should also be established for the children aged 3-6 inthis region. It would provide a basis for guiding parents and child healthworkers to prevent the lack of five elements for pre-school children.Most of the test for the iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium fiveelements only limited the simple processing to the results, and the groupcontrast to the age, region, etc nowadays. The article detailed statisticalanalysis the lack of five elements for the preschool children in gender, age,region and disorders with obesity, anemia, malnutrition, dental caries, pooreyesight, as well as the relationships with the disorders, so that the normalreference range of the five elements is set out in the region.We selected 3,681 school children of nine kindergartens of this region inthe cluster sampling method in 2010, collected fasting blood in peripheral ringfinger, determinate the level of the five elements with atomic absorptionspectrometry, detected the hemoglobin concentration by the hemoglobinanalyzer, and did the physical examination to the children’s height, weight,facial features, teeth, chest, head circumference, to evaluate them withevaluation of reference standards of physical development. The normalreference range was obtained according to the calculation method of thenormal reference range in “Health Statistics”. The relationships with a varietyof disorders could be got by comparing the five elements of normal preschoolchildren and with obesity, anemia, malnutrition, dental caries, and pooreyesight.It shows that the situation of lack of five elements for preschool childrenTanggu District, Tianjin is better than the corresponding groups in the citiesof equal rank nationwide. Growth and developments are also in good condition.But the government and Health workers should still step up publicity. Meanwhile parents should also be reasonably adjust the dietary structure anddo well the early prevention, and choose the most appropriate time toappropriately add the microelements.

The Impact of Health on Non-Agriculrural Employment (Education Papers posted on November 24th, 2014 )

The transfer of Agricultural labor to non-Agricultural industries will be an important Economic phenomenon in a long period of time in China. Non-agricultural employment plays a very important role in improving the income of the farmers, reducing rural-urban gap, promoting the urbanization process and improving the country’s comprehensive Economic strength. To individual farmers, the behavior of non-agricultural employment is the competitive selection of human capital. Human capital includes Health and Education, training and migration as Health is the basis for the other three parts. If people lose their health, their access to other kinds of human capital will be restricted. Besides, this restriction can not be make up alternatively by other means. Because one’s freedom and ability to choose has been destroyed from the bottom.Based on this, the study of health effects on non-agricultural employment has important practical significance. In the perspective of human capital, this paper describes the Basic characteristics, the health status and the non-agricultural employment situation of the rural labor force in nine provinces of China, using China Health and Nutrition Survey Data in2006. Statistics found that the proportion of non-agricultural employment has increased. But there is a big gap between male and female non-farm employment levels. Male’s non-agricultural employment rate is almost double that of women. Then, the article explores the simple correlation between health status and the non-agricultural employment with indicators of different health dimensions. Preliminary analysis shows that non-agricultural labor force has a higher average height, a bigger average BMI value in male sample only, a lighter illness situation and a more optimistic self-reported health status than the agricultural labor force.In order to analyze the impacts of health on non-agricultural employment, Binary Probit Mode was used separately in three kinds of samples:total sample, male sample and female sample. The empirical result suggest that almost every aspect of health had significant impacts on non-agricultural employment:height has a positive impact for total sample especially for male sample to choose non-agricultural employment; BMI does not have notable impact for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment but has a positive impact for male; illness in a short term has a negative impact for total sample especially for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment; self-reported health has a positive impact for both male and female sample on non-agricultural employment.According to the findings of this research, the author advises that the government should not only improve the rural Medical services and security system but also implement measures of rural children’s nutrition improvement to increase rural labor’s health human capital comprehensively.

Study on Evaluation of Human Resources Policies in Community Health Services (Education Papers posted on November 9th, 2014 )

ObjectiveOn the basis of analyzing existing data including statistical yearbook, this research described the Basic situation and problems of human resources in community Health service organizations. Then the paper collected human resources policies in community Health services and evaluated the training and personnel policies. according to the results ,successful experience from home and abroad should be learned to promote our primary health workforce, In the end, the paper put forward countermeasures and suggestions to improve the existing human resources policies in community health services.Methods1.Literature analysisCollect and summarize theory and practice related to community health human resources by accessing to Medline,CBM,CNKI and other network database.Then, it can offer helpful reference to the research.2.Stakeholder analysisDefine key stakeholder of community health manpower policies such as goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident. Explore the interaction of their behavioral characteristics and study the conflict of their interest points and the constraint relations.3.Questionnaire methodTake Hubei Province as the typical survey area and carry out investigation in Wuhan and prefecture-level city. Conduct a questionnaire survey of staff in community health care orgnization to learn the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of huaman resources policies in community health services. 4.Statistical methodUse statistical software SPSS13.0 to analyze the staff composition, age structure, Education constitution ,etc of community health manpower. Use descriptive analysis and chi-square test to evaluate policies of community health training and personnel.Results(1)The number of community health staff is in rapid growth, but there are some problems as follows. The quality and operational standards of Community health workers is low; nursing staff is in shortage and out of proportion to the Medical staff; the professional of public health staff is also low.(2) Evaluate the training and personnel policies and learn information as follows.Most people do not know much about training policy in community health services; the necessity of training policy is recognized, 91.1 percent of people think it is necessary to carry out training; the methods, content and assessment way of training policy need to be improved; training is effective,but the rules of training policy is not clear enough; the average importance score of human resources and financial resources are both 3.76, ranking first in the resources; the implementation of the training policy is not bad, only 12.9 percent of people choose the answer of”bad”.most people do not know much about personnel policy either,only 28.7 percent of people have a deeper understanding of personnel policy; the necessity of training policy is also recognized, but it need to be improved; the effect of personnel policy is not strong, negative attitude of the people accounted for 28 percent while 25 percent of people hold positive attitude; the rules of training policy is not clear enough,work experience has impact on the judgment of it; financial resource is the most important resource to implement the personnel policy; more than half of the people think the implementation of personnel policy is not so good.(3)Suggestions: take various training methods and effectively improve the operational standards of community health workers; update training content to meet the practical needs of community residents; accelerate the training of community health nurses and improve their services capacity; establish mechanism that Medical promotion should be linked with participation in community health services; encourage the rational personnel flow, strengthen the community health personnel; increase community health workers’income and ensure the stability of personnel; strengthen community health prevention and care teams and raise the capacity of responding to public health issues; recruit some people to ease the shortage of community health workers.Innovation and limitationsInnovation: The research innovatively evaluate community health manpower policies through qualitative and quantitative methods.Moreover,the research defines goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident as key stakeholder of community health manpower policies and do stakeholder analysis.Limitations: The survey is done only in Hubei province due to time, manpower and funding constraints,and the number of sample is limited; policy evaluation is seldom used in health field and few useful experience can be learned;the research only evaluate the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of training and personnel policies and the contents are not detailed and comprehensive.