The transfer oflabor to non- industries will be an important phenomenon in a long period of time in China. Non-agricultural employment plays a very important role in improving the income of the farmers, reducing rural-urban gap, promoting the urbanization process and improving the country’s comprehensive strength. To individual farmers, the behavior of non-agricultural employment is the competitive selection of human capital. Human capital includes and , training and migration as is the basis for the other three parts. If people lose their health, their access to other kinds of human capital will be restricted. Besides, this restriction can not be make up alternatively by other means. Because one’s freedom and ability to choose has been destroyed from the bottom.Based on this, the study of health effects on non-agricultural employment has important practical significance. In the perspective of human capital, this paper describes the characteristics, the health status and the non-agricultural employment situation of the rural labor force in nine provinces of China, using China and Nutrition Survey Data in2006. Statistics found that the proportion of non-agricultural employment has increased. But there is a big gap between male and female non-farm employment levels. Male’s non-agricultural employment rate is almost double that of women. Then, the article explores the simple correlation between health status and the non-agricultural employment with indicators of different health dimensions. Preliminary analysis shows that non-agricultural labor force has a higher average height, a bigger average BMI value in male sample only, a lighter illness situation and a more optimistic self-reported health status than the agricultural labor force.In order to analyze the impacts of health on non-agricultural employment, Binary Probit Mode was used separately in three kinds of samples:total sample, male sample and female sample. The empirical result suggest that almost every aspect of health had significant impacts on non-agricultural employment:height has a positive impact for total sample especially for male sample to choose non-agricultural employment; BMI does not have notable impact for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment but has a positive impact for male; illness in a short term has a negative impact for total sample especially for female sample to choose non-agricultural employment; self-reported health has a positive impact for both male and female sample on non-agricultural employment.According to the findings of this research, the author advises that the government should not only improve the rural services and security system but also implement measures of rural children’s nutrition improvement to increase rural labor’s health human capital comprehensively.
Tag Archive: Health
The Impact of Health on Non-Agriculrural Employment (Education Papers posted on November 24th, 2014 )
Study on Evaluation of Human Resources Policies in Community Health Services (Education Papers posted on November 9th, 2014 )
ObjectiveOn the basis of analyzing existing data including statistical yearbook, this research described thesituation and problems of human resources in service organizations. Then the paper collected human resources policies in services and evaluated the training and personnel policies. according to the results ,successful experience from home and abroad should be learned to promote our primary workforce, In the end, the paper put forward countermeasures and suggestions to improve the existing human resources policies in health services.Methods1.Literature analysisCollect and summarize theory and practice related to community health human resources by accessing to Medline,CBM,CNKI and other network database.Then, it can offer helpful reference to the research.2.Stakeholder analysisDefine key stakeholder of community health manpower policies such as goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident. Explore the interaction of their behavioral characteristics and study the conflict of their interest points and the constraint relations.3.Questionnaire methodTake Hubei Province as the typical survey area and carry out investigation in Wuhan and prefecture-level city. Conduct a questionnaire survey of staff in community health care orgnization to learn the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of huaman resources policies in community health services. 4.Statistical methodUse statistical software SPSS13.0 to analyze the staff composition, age structure, constitution ,etc of community health manpower. Use descriptive analysis and chi-square test to evaluate policies of community health training and personnel.Results(1)The number of community health staff is in rapid growth, but there are some problems as follows. The quality and operational standards of Community health workers is low; nursing staff is in shortage and out of proportion to the staff; the professional of public health staff is also low.(2) Evaluate the training and personnel policies and learn information as follows.Most people do not know much about training policy in community health services; the necessity of training policy is recognized, 91.1 percent of people think it is necessary to carry out training; the methods, content and assessment way of training policy need to be improved; training is effective,but the rules of training policy is not clear enough; the average importance score of human resources and financial resources are both 3.76, ranking first in the resources; the implementation of the training policy is not bad, only 12.9 percent of people choose the answer of”bad”.most people do not know much about personnel policy either,only 28.7 percent of people have a deeper understanding of personnel policy; the necessity of training policy is also recognized, but it need to be improved; the effect of personnel policy is not strong, negative attitude of the people accounted for 28 percent while 25 percent of people hold positive attitude; the rules of training policy is not clear enough,work experience has impact on the judgment of it; financial resource is the most important resource to implement the personnel policy; more than half of the people think the implementation of personnel policy is not so good.(3)Suggestions: take various training methods and effectively improve the operational standards of community health workers; update training content to meet the practical needs of community residents; accelerate the training of community health nurses and improve their services capacity; establish mechanism that promotion should be linked with participation in community health services; encourage the rational personnel flow, strengthen the community health personnel; increase community health workers’income and ensure the stability of personnel; strengthen community health prevention and care teams and raise the capacity of responding to public health issues; recruit some people to ease the shortage of community health workers.Innovation and limitationsInnovation: The research innovatively evaluate community health manpower policies through qualitative and quantitative methods.Moreover,the research defines goverment, community health care orgnization, hospital, resident as key stakeholder of community health manpower policies and do stakeholder analysis.Limitations: The survey is done only in Hubei province due to time, manpower and funding constraints,and the number of sample is limited; policy evaluation is seldom used in health field and few useful experience can be learned;the research only evaluate the necessity, rationality, feasibility and implemented results of training and personnel policies and the contents are not detailed and comprehensive.
The Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine Health Management Mode (Education Papers posted on November 8th, 2014 )
At present,our country is in a rapid development, innovatiaon eta,Chinese national spirit civilization and material civilization level arc rising steadily.The government attaches great importance to the masses of life andand life quality,from several aspects of strengthening national managemrnt.Because the conceptcs of change, people no longer focus on after I hecame ill treatments.but paying more attention to the prevention and care before sicken.This shows that our country has entered a health,disease and treatment reinterpret stage However,China’s current personal health models are corny imitation foreign methIod,ignored our advantageous prerequisites.lack of TCM charateristic with the health management mode,traditional Chinese medicine and the special role and influence not given proper play.Especially need attention,both in modern medicine and in traditional single theory under the guidance of the health management. can realize the comprensive and systematic ensure national health purpose.this also is now China’s health management market chaotic the main reason for the lack of competitivenss.Only the essence of both the place has selectively fusion,can achieye better health management effect. This paper USES theoretical comparison,document analysis,set the brain will commercial research methods,a systematic theory of Chinese and foreign related health management were studied.The use surveys law in Hardin diffrent cultural background,professional,and age group conducted sampling investigation,and understand the health of people surveyed the health management cognition,Chines medicine non-drug therapy and Chinese medicine health care each year,the application method of health care and expenses investigation into amount and the most attention health management crowd.Based on the analysis of the survey results.as can be engaged in Harbin city at present mainly health management institution – comprehensive hospital and independent health management institution, in providing health management service did not play its role,with charac teristic of traditional Chinese medicine health management philophy has not get promotion. accord with China’s national conditions and the level of economin development.give full play to the special advantage of traditional chinese medicine health management mode has not yet fully established.On this basis.this paper puts forward based on modern medicine and traditional medicine theory and technical combination of health management pattern design framework.If further implement,can satisfy all levels health management service demand erowd,improve peorove’s health level and reduce disease and tuus a good way to solve the difficult,people ” the doctor see problms such as your Realization of TCM characteristic with everyone,safe and effective,convenient diverse,low health management services.We can believe,has the characteristic of traitional chinese medicine health management model conforms to our country medical health system reform is to solve the diection of people’s livelihood.an effective measures.
Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Physical Education at a Selected Elementary School (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )
The motivation for this study stemmed from a lack of understanding of why members of an elementary school community did not support the physicalprogram. The purpose of this study was to understand teachers’, administrators’, and parents’ perceptions about the value and importance of physical at the school. Guided by the transtheoretical and cognitive evaluation theories, both of which focus on the motivation to change, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions of members of an elementary school community in the southern United States about the value and importance of the school’s physical program. Twelve stakeholders (teachers, administrators, and parents of children enrolled at the school) participated in interviews for the study. Typological and inductive analyses of the data yielded emergent themes on communication, , lifelong learning of physical education, positive experiences of physical education, scheduling, and aspects of physical education. The key finding was that communication is necessary for an effective physical education program. This finding would advance practice by improving communications between the physical education teacher and members of the elementary school community. The implication for positive change comes from guidelines about improved communications between the physical education teacher and administration, school personnel, parents, and students at the participating elementary school. This improved communication will increase the support for the physical education program, and in turn, will benefit the students who participate in a more effective physical education program.
An investigation of a theoretical model of health-related outcomes of resilience in middle adolescents (Education Papers posted on April 12th, 2014 )
The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based just-identified model to better understand resilience and its direct and indirect effects on theorizedoutcomes in middle adolescents. The study empirically tested the direct effects of resilience on a) hope, b) well-being, and c) -promoting lifestyles, and the direct effects of hope on d) well-being and e) health promoting lifestyles. The indirect effects of resilience on a) well-being, and b) health-promoting lifestyle through hope were also examined. The final sample of 311 of middle-adolescents, aged 15 to 17, was recruited at a northern New Jersey public high school. Participants completed the demographic data sheet and four instruments measuring the study variables during their regularly scheduled health classes. The structural equation model was tested with the LISREL 8.80 software program. Results indicated that resilience had a direct effect on hope Gamma ＝ .66, p ＜ .001), well-being Gamma ＝ .44, p ＜ .001), and health-promoting lifestyles Gamma ＝ .56, p ＜ .001). Hope also had a direct effect on well-being Beta ＝ .42, p ＜ .001), and health-promoting lifestyle Beta ＝.26, p ＜ .001). Resilience had an indirect effect on both well-being and health-promoting lifestyle through hope. The unhypothesized correlated error term between well-being and health-promoting lifestyle, the two dependent variables, was psi ＝ 0.13, p ＜ .001. All of the seven hypotheses in this study were derived from theory and were supported empirically, providing evidence of the predictive power of the theoretical propositions tested. Therefore, it can be concluded that resilience has direct positive effects on hope, well-being, and health-promoting lifestyle in middle adolescents, and that hope had direct positive effects on well-being and health-promoting lifestyle. Additionally, resilience has an indirect effect on well-being and health-promoting lifestyle through hope in middle adolescents. Finally, it can be concluded that resilience is a strong predictor of hope and that resilience is a better predictor than hope for the two health-related outcomes, well-being and health-promoting lifestyle.
Youth Taking Action to Improve their Sex Education at Bellman Secondary (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )
al decision-makers rarely legitimize youths perspectives in constructing “effective” sex . In this study, I concentrated on what students have to say about this aspect of their educational experience, and learned how decision-makers respond to youths perspectives. I draw on Michel Foucaults notions of discourse, power, and resistance to understand the importance of listening to students marginalized voices and legitimizing their subjugated knowledges. I then discuss the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, drawing attention to its assertion that youth have rights to learn about sexual and to participate in sex . I also draw on constructs of democratic education and student empowerment to argue that youth have expertise and so can express “what is” and “what must be” in dialogue with decision-makers. With the goal of initiating and facilitating Youth Participatory Action Research, I entered Bellman Secondary where I mobilized a research collective with youth partners. The youth learned about research ethics and the interview method prior to addressing the following questions: 1) What are students perspectives of their sex education at Bellman? 2) How would students change the sex education offered at Bellman, if they could? The youth interviewed Grade 12 students, inviting them to problematize their sex education experiences, critique the curricular rules, and cross the disciplinary limits with the aim of identifying transformative possibilities that would satisfy their sexual needs. The collective analyzed the data and showcased our findings in an action plan, titled Sex-E-cation. In order to incite and inform curricular change, the team presented Sex-E-cation to students and two decision-makers&mdash；a Teacher and School Administrator&mdash；with the aim of informing dialogue. Given that these decision-makers failed to participate in the study, it is unclear if they took students perspectives into consideration to make sex education more relevant to their lives. While those inside Bellman never participated by responding to the action plan, two outsider decision-makers&mdash；a School Nurse and Learning Coordinator&mdash；did participate in this way. They planned to take transformative action to rectify problems, and thereby improve students sex education so it satisfies their expressed needs. Keywords: sexual health education, youth, Foucault, democratic education, expressed needs.
Training law enforcement in mental health: A broad-based model (Education Papers posted on April 11th, 2014 )
Police officers respond to many calls involving people suffering from a mental illness； yet many law enforcement training programs and workshops do not include mentaltraining. A literature review was conducted to explore the problems resulting from the lack of mental training available for law enforcement officers and identify specialized training programs currently being implemented to address those problems. The review identified several program models being implemented throughout the United States including: Joint Police/Mental Team Model, Mobile Crisis Unit Model, Crisis Intervention Team Model, and the Broad-Based Training Model. These models include empirically supported components used to increase learning and decrease stigma and result in significantly reduced arrest rates of the mentally ill and increase the safety of interactions between law enforcement and the mental health community. A broad-based training seminar was presented to volunteers from local policing agencies. A pre and posttest analysis revealed significant positive changes in attitude, behavior, and improved knowledge of mental health issues as a result of the training. The limitations of the current research and the future implications in regard to the safety of law enforcement and the safety of those affected by mental illness are discussed.
A process evaluation of nurses’ implementation of an infant feeding counseling protocol for HIV-infected mothers: The Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study in Lilongwe, Malawi (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
In prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programs, nurses are responsible for counseling HIV-infected mothers about infant feeding. Studies of nurses infant feeding counseling in African countries suggest that counseling quality is often poor and may be associated with nursing culture, inadequate training, andsystem factors. Few studies, however, have conducted theory-informed process evaluations to assess nurses implementation of an infant feeding counseling protocol. This study conducted the process evaluation of an infant feeding counseling protocol for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition BAN) Study, an ongoing clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six nurses, trained on World Organization recommendations, counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and stop breastfeeding at 6 months. This study adapted and applied patient-provider communication theoretical concepts to assess nurses counseling behaviors through: 1) direct observation and audio-taping of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions 30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) using a checklist to document nurses adherence to specific protocol items； and 2) in-depth interviews with each nurse to document adherence perceptions and attitudes toward the protocol. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence of checklists and constant comparison techniques and visual display matrices for the observation and interview data. Results indicate that nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Adherence to protocol items during the antenatal sessions was 100%. During postnatal sessions, adherence ranged from 92.7% to 97.8%. Nurses implementation inconsistencies occurred when addressing breast and breastfeeding cessation issues. An unexpected finding was nurses counseling mothers on proper infant formula preparation, although not detailed in the protocol. Interviews revealed a high nurse to mother ratio and additional counseling training on infant formula and complementary feeding preparation as perceived barriers toward complete protocol adherence. Findings illustrate that with minimal training, nurses implemented the BAN Study infant feeding counseling protocol as designed. The process evaluation results will help to interpret the BAN Studys impact and health outcomes related to evaluating mothers feasibility to follow infant feeding recommendations. The implication for HIV/AIDS clinical trials is to conduct process evaluations to identify and address potential implementation inconsistencies and, thereby, improve protocol implementation adherence.
Attitudes of health and physical education teachers: Student obesity and educator roles for its amelioration (Education Papers posted on March 25th, 2013 )
This study determines if theand physical teachers in an urban Pennsylvania high school have positive or negative attitudes toward obese individuals and the factors that contribute to obesity. It also uncovers how they feel about the school setting as the primary location for combating obesity through prevention programs. Methodology: Data was collected using three survey instruments: a demographic survey, the Attitudes Toward Obese Persons Scale (ATOP) and the Attitudes Toward Obesity Issues (ATOI) survey. Analysis included descriptive statistics and correlations between factors in the three instruments. Results: The BMIs of majority of the male HPE teachers fell into the category of overweight, while most of the female HPE teachers were categorized as normal weight. The participants responded similarly to most of the ATOI statements, at 81-100% unanimity for agreement or disagreement, with the exception of one statement. Results for statement 14 of the ATOI found forty-nine percent of HPE teachers agree that high school would be the ideal place to address obesity. Twenty-seven percent disagreed and 24 percent were unsure. The mean ATOP score was 66. Thirty-five percent of the respondents received scores indicating negative attitudes toward obese persons, ATOP <； 60. The median score was 68. Conclusion: There was no profile discovered for a HPE teacher who would express negative attitudes toward obese adolescents. Urban high school HPE teachers respond similarly to many statements about obesity issues, however they are diverse in their responses about high school being the ideal place to address obesity.
The quest for autonomy: Patient decision-making behaviors in type 2 diabetes (Education Papers posted on March 25th, 2013 )
The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of decision-making about exercise from the perspective of the patient with type 2 diabetes. Through the use of participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and the analysis of the Stages of Behavior Change Scale, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale, and the Cooper Clinic Physical Activity Questionnaire, this comparative cross-case analysis explored the, clinical and contextual factors, as well as the barriers that influence patient decision-making. The relationship between autonomous regulation of exercise behavior and perceived competence to follow through with ones decisions to exercise by patients, and the concept of autonomy support on the part of healthcare practitioners were also established as important components to consider in the development of an effective diabetes patient curriculum. The analysis of the data is presented in qualitative, narrative form, using the voices of the participants and first-person accounts of the researcher in an effort to portray the challenges and emotion-filled meanings associated with the lived experience of daily decision-making in type 2 diabetes. The major findings of the study suggest that exercise decision-making is a complex process of interplay between a logical, rational, cognitive approach, and a more dynamic, unconscious, affective process of balancing reasons for exercise choices with ones values, beliefs, experiences and meanings about , diabetes and exercise. There appears to be a relationship between the stage of behavior change and the degree to which one is a cognitive or affective decision-maker in type 2 diabetes. Cognitive factors such as ones perception regarding the threat of diabetes, having and positive exercise schema, and the degree of internal versus external motivation impact exercise decision-making. -contextual factors such as exercise group support, family or social support, and having a positive exercise role model or expert leader/teacher influence adoption and adherence to an exercise habit by those with diabetes. Affective factors such as the meaning-making associated with having diabetes, locus of control and coping behavior have an emotional impact on the person with diabetes, and often unconsciously influence decision-making and autonomous behavior. Barriers to following through with exercise decisions include conflicts with time , patient fatigue that interferes with exercise tolerance, ease of access to exercise equipment or facilities, boredom with the exercise regimen, and interference with leisure-time television viewing. Abstract shortened by UMI.)