Tag Archive: GuidanceandCounseling

The efficiency of K–12 public education production, gender inequalities in college advising, and labor market implications (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

My dissertation consists of three chapters that focus on the Economics of education. In particular I look at public school financing, gender discrimination in advising, and the effectiveness of out-of-school-time programs for disadvantaged schools. The first chapter analyzes the effect of an extremely large funding shock on Wyoming public schools in the 2006-07 school year. The effect of the shock is estimated on high school graduation rates and NAEP math and reading scores via synthetic control methods. The funding shock in Wyoming, which was the largest increase in education expenditure for any state in the nation from 1998-2008, is shown to have been largely unsuccessful in raising graduation rates and test scores. The second chapter uses a field experiment to analyze college advising differentials by student and advisor gender. Advisors assess the expected performance of students in both mathematics and English and recommend one of the two subjects to the student. Surveys are randomly assigned, and the experiment is designed such that student gender is the treatment. Advisors are found to discount the ability of female students relative to males in both mathematics and English. Additionally, male advisors recommend mathematics with much greater likelihood than do female advisors. The final chapter analyzes the effect of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program on disadvantaged schools. Using a regression discontinuity design, it is found that 21CCLC has a more positive effect on middle schoolers than on elementary school students, but that results vary widely depending on the cohort and grade level. The program seems to have potential for significant improvement in school outcomes, but also has potential to have negative effects. There is some evidence from 2007-2011 that the program is improving over time.

From receivers of service to givers of service: Promoting civic engagement in youth from disadvantaged circumstances (Education Papers posted on May 13th, 2014 )

Youth civic engagement has been an important topic for educators, policy makers, community leaders, and parents with many voicing concerns over a growing decrease in youth civic engagement. Youth civic engagement is often defined by engagement with politics and or the local community through volunteering or service-learning. Youth from disadvantaged circumstances tend to be less civically engaged then their advantaged counterparts and often find themselves as receivers of service with fewer opportunities to give. Disadvantaged circumstances refer to the circumstances youth were born into that put them at a disadvantage for academic achievement such as poverty and race. Opportunities for these youth to reverse the relationship from receiver of service to giver of service will likely lead to increases in youth civic engagement. Service-learning is often used to increase civic engagement by helping youth gain knowledge of their community and opportunities to be of service to others. This case study utilized youth participatory action research and service-learning to understand how opportunities to serve can promote youth civic engagement. The findings suggest that when given opportunities to serve that go beyond simple acts of charity to justice oriented service-learning projects; youth from disadvantaged circumstances will seek out additional opportunities to serve thereby increasing their civic engagement level and spurring the development of their civic identity.

The relationship among resilience, forgiveness, and anger expression in adolescents (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

This study was designed to investigate and describe the relationship among resilience, forgiveness and anger expression in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to explore whether certain adolescent resiliencies significantly related to positive or negative affective, behavioral, or cognitive levels of forgiveness and certain types of anger expression in adolescents. This study also investigated whether there were certain adolescent resiliencies and types of forgiveness that can predict lower levels of negative anger expression in adolescents. This research was built on two conceptual models: Wolin and Wolin’s (1993) Challenge Model and the Forgiveness Process Model (Enright & Human Development Study Group, 1991). It was based on a quantitative, single-subject correlational research design. A multiple regression analysis was also used to explore possible effects of resilience and forgiveness on anger expression in adolescents. In addition, two demographic variables, Age and Gender, were examined for possible effects on anger expression. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 70 students in three Maine public high schools using three separate assessment instruments: the Adolescent Resiliency Attitudes Scale (ARAS), the Adolescent Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), and the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS). Correlational analyses were done on the scales and subscales of these surveys. Significant relationships were found between several adolescent resiliencies and forms of forgiveness as well as between some adolescent resiliencies and types of anger expression. The data indicated that Total Resiliency significantly correlated with Total Forgiveness as well as Total Anger. The findings also identified particular adolescent resiliencies that significantly predicted types of anger expression, while forgiveness did not predict types of anger expression. The data revealed that Age and Gender had no significant affect on anger expression. These findings suggest that the constructs of adolescent resilience and forgiveness have commonalities that can influence how adolescents express anger, and further suggest that intervention and prevention programs expand their focus to incorporate forgiveness skills. The findings from this study can provide critical information to counselors, therapists, and other helping professionals working with adolescents, on approaches to designing and implementing therapy modalities or developmental school guidance programs for adolescents.

The relationship among resilience, forgiveness, and anger expression in adolescents (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

This study was designed to investigate and describe the relationship among resilience, forgiveness and anger expression in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to explore whether certain adolescent resiliencies significantly related to positive or negative affective, behavioral, or cognitive levels of forgiveness and certain types of anger expression in adolescents. This study also investigated whether there were certain adolescent resiliencies and types of forgiveness that can predict lower levels of negative anger expression in adolescents. This research was built on two conceptual models: Wolin and Wolin’s (1993) Challenge Model and the Forgiveness Process Model (Enright & Human Development Study Group, 1991). It was based on a quantitative, single-subject correlational research design. A multiple regression analysis was also used to explore possible effects of resilience and forgiveness on anger expression in adolescents. In addition, two demographic variables, Age and Gender, were examined for possible effects on anger expression. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 70 students in three Maine public high schools using three separate assessment instruments: the Adolescent Resiliency Attitudes Scale (ARAS), the Adolescent Version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), and the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS). Correlational analyses were done on the scales and subscales of these surveys. Significant relationships were found between several adolescent resiliencies and forms of forgiveness as well as between some adolescent resiliencies and types of anger expression. The data indicated that Total Resiliency significantly correlated with Total Forgiveness as well as Total Anger. The findings also identified particular adolescent resiliencies that significantly predicted types of anger expression, while forgiveness did not predict types of anger expression. The data revealed that Age and Gender had no significant affect on anger expression. These findings suggest that the constructs of adolescent resilience and forgiveness have commonalities that can influence how adolescents express anger, and further suggest that intervention and prevention programs expand their focus to incorporate forgiveness skills. The findings from this study can provide critical information to counselors, therapists, and other helping professionals working with adolescents, on approaches to designing and implementing therapy modalities or developmental school guidance programs for adolescents.

Disciplinary power and extraclassroom public life (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )

This executive position paper seeks to detail the ways power is exercised in extraclassroom settings at Pequea Valley Intermediate School. The goal of this study is to recommend practices and policies that both empower marginalized students and eliminate practices that characterize chronic delinquency amongst students. Too many students commit repeated acts of misconduct at Pequea Valley Intermediate School and experience negative academic and Social outcomes. Student-to-student exercises of power serve to rank, empower, and subordinate students, with some students demonstrating chronic delinquent behavior. Examining the exercise of power on a microlevel will enable administrators and teachers to recognize and better support an empowering and participatory education for marginalized students. This qualitative study involved 53 field notes recorded in three extraclassroom sites at Pequea Valley Intermediate School: the cafeteria, the hallways, and the assistant principals office. These observations yielded 479 exercises of disciplinary power that were subsequently coded into a priori coding categories derived from Michel Foucaults conceptions of disciplinary power. Seventeen students participated in semi-structured interviews designed to offer depth of information regarding the exercise of disciplinary power in these settings. Field research revealed that power functioned in multiple and divergent ways. Students adhered to varied sets of normalized behaviors that were highly contextualized. Norms of behavior were continuously defined and rewritten, influenced greatly by the presence or absence of adult and peer surveillance. Furthermore, students demonstrated continual classification and reclassification of their peers based upon fluid and vague criteria. Behavior within peers groups was consistently normalized by its members; often, peer groups participated in the normalization of behaviors that excluded others and served to continually fix deviant status on these excluded students. Recommendations included encouraging teachers and administrators to adopt an analytic informed by power as a productive force regarding program implementation and evaluation, facilitating students recognition of disciplinary power, disrupting student and teacher practices that contribute to the fixation of deviancy, and interrogating teacher/administrator regulatory behaviors.

Team cognition in group interventions: The relation between co-leaders’ shared mental models of the group and group climate (Education Papers posted on March 22nd, 2013 )

The relation between convergence in group co-leaders’ schemas, or mental models, of their groups and group members’ perceptions of group climate was examined. Co-leaders of eight inter-group dialogue groups provided paired comparison ratings of the similarity of group members, and group members provided group climate ratings, following each of seven sessions. Paired comparison ratings were analyzed using Pathfinder Network Analysis (Schvaneveldt, 1990) to examine the structure of each co-leader’s mental model of her or his group, and to compare these mental models within co-leader pairs to determine degree of match in co-leaders’ mental models for each co-leader pair, for each week (i.e., how similarly co-leaders of a group view their group). Cross correlations and growth curve analyses of the match and group climate data showed an increase in match of co-leaders’ mental models across sessions, and that match in co-leader mental models was related to group climate.

An examination of medical Qigong: Its practice, application, and potential value for a Western society (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

The major goal of this research was to examine the practice of Qigong from the point of view of the experienced practitioner. A concurrent goal was to examine the most effective means by which to examine/research this intricate practice. First it was necessary to give the reader a general history and background of the practice, including its scientific and philosophical underpinnings. Next there was an exploration of the best tool/perspective for evaluating and framing Qigong, namely modernism, postmodernism and/or the Integral model. The Integral model is the overarching framework for this study because it is the most inclusive for examining, evaluating and comprehending the nature and dynamics of Qigong. The literature review was nested in Ken Wilbers four quadrant matrix. This model combines the holarchy of consciousness mind, body and spirit) with the differentiation and delineation that is characteristic of the Western perspective of reality. Next I reviewed the research design. The study method was qualitative with elements of being auto-biographical and phenomenological, but also influenced by critical theory and key informant knowledge. McCrackens analysis framework was used as a way of interrogating my data. The actual research project involved interviewing eight experienced key informant) Qigong practitioners, four of Western descent and four of Eastern descent. The object of these interviews was to get first-hand information more akin to wisdom) and perspectives on the practice and effectiveness of Qigong from knowledgeable adepts. A second goal was to ascertain what the practitioners felt would be the best way to research Qigong. From these interviews eleven broad categories of information/data were gleaned. These were used to address my research questions. The final section of this project attempts to weave together all of the information gathered into an intricate and understandable pattern that recognizes the traditions in which Qigong is nested and the demands that a critical, Western perspective exacts.

Team cognition in group interventions: The relation between co-leaders’ shared mental models of the group and group climate (Education Papers posted on March 21st, 2013 )

The relation between convergence in group co-leaders’ schemas, or mental models, of their groups and group members’ perceptions of group climate was examined. Co-leaders of eight inter-group dialogue groups provided paired comparison ratings of the similarity of group members, and group members provided group climate ratings, following each of seven sessions. Paired comparison ratings were analyzed using Pathfinder Network Analysis (Schvaneveldt, 1990) to examine the structure of each co-leader’s mental model of her or his group, and to compare these mental models within co-leader pairs to determine degree of match in co-leaders’ mental models for each co-leader pair, for each week (i.e., how similarly co-leaders of a group view their group). Cross correlations and growth curve analyses of the match and group climate data showed an increase in match of co-leaders’ mental models across sessions, and that match in co-leader mental models was related to group climate.

Team cognition in group interventions: The relation between co-leaders’ shared mental models of the group and group climate (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

The relation between convergence in group co-leaders’ schemas, or mental models, of their groups and group members’ perceptions of group climate was examined. Co-leaders of eight inter-group dialogue groups provided paired comparison ratings of the similarity of group members, and group members provided group climate ratings, following each of seven sessions. Paired comparison ratings were analyzed using Pathfinder Network Analysis (Schvaneveldt, 1990) to examine the structure of each co-leader’s mental model of her or his group, and to compare these mental models within co-leader pairs to determine degree of match in co-leaders’ mental models for each co-leader pair, for each week (i.e., how similarly co-leaders of a group view their group). Cross correlations and growth curve analyses of the match and group climate data showed an increase in match of co-leaders’ mental models across sessions, and that match in co-leader mental models was related to group climate.

Perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction using longitudinal growth models (Education Papers posted on March 20th, 2013 )

The present study extends previous research examining the effect of perceived equity and relationship satisfaction on sexual satisfaction. Using self-report data from a random, national, repeated measures sample, the relationship between level of equity and reported level of sexual satisfaction across a fourteen-year period was examined. Utilizing growth models, results indicated that equity remained highly stable over time. Further, results indicated that equity was a statistically significant predictor of sexual satisfaction. Discussion surrounding the use of equity in relationship therapy is addressed.