The present study explores the language socialization of a group of China-born and American-born children who are Mandarin learners at the Lu Xun Chinese Heritage Language School in the Southwestern U.S. Theoretically, the study follows a new paradigm in language socialization research which focuses on second language contexts and uses multiple sources of data to investigate the dynamic nature of the process through which learners are socialized into a new language and cultural environment. Specifically, the study explores how members of a small Chinese community in a major city contribute to the maintenance of the Chinese language and culture by transmitting their cultural values to their children through school and home contexts, and how the children react to the efforts made by their instructors, parents and other caregivers. Ethnographic in nature, the study was conducted by adopting a variety of methods such as participant observation in the classroom and the community, interviews with parents, instructors, and children, and dinner table talk. A total of twelve students, fifteen parents, and two instructors participated in the study and all data were recorded with digital recording equipment. This study adds to the current literature about how linguistic and cultural knowledge are constructed through each other in different heritage language learning contexts, and what role children/novices and adults/experts play as active and selective agents in the process of language socialization within these contexts.
Tag Archive: General
The invisible and the visible: Language socialization at the Chinese Heritage Language School (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
Predictors of resilient successful life outcomes in persons with disabilities: Towards a model of personal resilience (Education Papers posted on March 27th, 2013 )
Disability has been identified in the literature as a risk state which can lead to potentially less than optimal or poor life outcomes. To date, the risk and resilience literature has identified numerous protective factors related to various resilient outcomes across several life domains. The current study set out to quantitatively measure the predictive ability of a model of personal resilience, comprised of four personal protective factors optimistic outlook, self-efficacy, internal locus of control, and tenacity) to predict resilient successful life outcomes RSLOs) as participation across five life domains work, school, community, family, and leisure) amongst persons with disabilities. These four personal protective factors were examined individually as well as components of a model of personal resilience. Furthermore the ability of optimistic outlook, self-efficacy, and internal locus of control to predict tenacity, individually as well as together in a model of tenacity, were measured. The statistical significance of variation in RSLOs across static type disability and progressive type disability was measured. Finally, the statistical significance of variation in RSLOs across ethnicity was measured. 133 adult subjects, ages 20–63, with a variety of static type and progressive type disabilities from several organizations serving persons with disabilities participated in the study. Results showed optimistic outlook and internal locus of control when considered independently of as well as in the presence of the other predictors, were statistically significant in predicting RSLOs. Self-efficacy, when considered independently of the other predictors, was statistically significant in predicting RSLOs. Self-efficacy when considered independently as well as in the presence of the other variables was statistically significant in predicting tenacity. Optimistic outlook, when considered independently of the other predictors was statistically significant in predicting tenacity. Variation in RSLOs was not statistically significant across either disability type or ethnicity.
Identification of extended communication networks of school library media specialists (Education Papers posted on March 26th, 2013 )
Complex and often hidden networks exist within organizations and workgroups. The pattern of relations between individuals and groups of individuals that constitute the network may constrain or enable work performance by members of the organization. The researcher reports the findings of a study in which social network analysis methodology was applied to a school library media organization operating within a school district. The patterns of relations constituting four distinct communication networks were identified, measured, and mapped. Potential effects of these networks on individual library media specialists and on the organization as a whole were described.
Gender and professional experience as predictors of consultants’ likelihood of use of social power bases (Education Papers posted on March 24th, 2013 )
The social power typology originally identified by French and Raven (1959) and later modified by Raven (1965, 1992) was used to examine factors related to school psychological consultation. Specifically, this dissertation investigated whether the gender and amount of relevant professional experience of psychologists (i.e., consultants) and teachers (i.e., consltees) influenced how likely psychologists were to use soft power bases when consulting with teachers. In addition, this study examined whether consultants’ use of soft power bases was related to their self-evaluations of effectiveness during consultation. Two instruments were employed: the Interpersonal Power Inventory (IPI), which was modified to examine school consultants’ likelihood of use of social power bases when consulting with teachers； and the Consultant Evaluation Form (CEF), which was modified to assess psychologists’ self-evaluations of effectiveness during teacher consultation. The IPI and CEF were mailed together to 1,000 Nationally Certified School Psychologists, and a total of 352 usable protocols were returned. Results indicated that when consulting with female teachers, female consultants were not more likely to use positive referent power than the other four soft power bases combined； however, male psychologists were more likely to use positive expert power than the other four soft power bases combined. Additional results indicated that consultants’ likelihood of use of soft power bases was not related to their years of professional experience, although results of a secondary set of analyses using a slightly different constellation of soft power bases did yield a significant relationship between the two variables. Findings also revealed a significant relationship between consultees’ years of experience and consultants’ use of soft power bases, in that school consultants were less likely to use soft power with more experienced teachers. Finally, results indicated a significant, positive relationship between consultants’ likelihood of use of soft power bases and their self-evaluations of effectiveness during consultation. Findings of this study suggest that the experience level of teachers plays a significant role in determining the influence strategies used by psychologists during consultation. Results also imply that consultants’ use of soft power is related to perceptions of more effective school consultation.
Despite speculation that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001′s (NCLB) finely tuned attention to improving academic opportunities for traditionally low-performing students and student subgroups compromises educational opportunities of high-performing students, there is limited empirical evidence that NCLB actually inhibits the progress of high-performing students. Consequently, ideological predispositions have dominated public interest in distributional effects under NCLB. A Student X Subject general linear model with school and Year X Grade fixed effects is estimated to isolate whether a school, based on prior year’s performance, has targeted resources to (a) students in a failing subgroup, (b) students in a failing subject, and/or (c) students failing math on a failing subgroup in Idaho. There is strong evidence that NCLB’s threat of sanctions increased incentives for schools and school districts to elevate learning opportunities for traditionally low-performing students and student subgroups, but that the increased performance by traditionally low-performing students and student subgroups did not occur at the expense of traditionally high-performing students. It appears that Idaho’s response to NCLB is one of improved efficiency and not achievement tradeoffs, in that traditional public schools in the state did more with the same level and distribution of resources as in years past.
I develop a model in which a not-for-profit sector arises because altruistic agents care about the consumption of certain goods by other agents. The equilibrium is identical to the solution to the benefactors’ utility maximization subject to the beneficiaries’ demand, the potential entry of for-profit firms, the production technology and the budget constraint. Therefore, the goal of a not-for-profit reflects the preferences of the benefactor. If the goods produced in the not-for-profit sector are characterized by their quality and quantity, differences in the benefactor’s tastes for quality and quantity across these goods result in different effects of donations on prices. The main claim is that the price of quality-intensive goods is more likely to increase or stay constant when donations grow. I analyze the case of symphony orchestras in the U.S. in the period 1988-2005. The evidence is consistent with the benefactors caring significantly about the quality of the service. I also analyze the case of private colleges in the U.S. Since in this not-for-profit industry consumers (students) are inputs in the production process (education), I develop a more complicated model of matching. Students differ in talent and maximize their net wealth. Colleges differ in wealth and maximize their quality, measured by the human capital of their graduates. The model has two predictions: (1) when a college becomes wealthier it raises tuition, and (2) when the wealth of all colleges grows at the same rate, tuition increases at every college. The first claim is supported with data from the period 1970-2005 using the number of alumni as an instrumental variable for each college’s wealth. The second claim is supported with a data set from the period 1900-2005 using the Dow Jones index as an instrumental variable for colleges’ median endowment. The main conclusion is that colleges’ wealth must be added to the factors behind the rapid growth in tuition fees over the last twenty-five years discussed in other studies.
Interrupting habitus and community-based arts: Pedagogical efficacy in a university/community collaboration (Education Papers posted on March 16th, 2013 )
This study examines the “border crossing” experiences of college students participating in Reflections in Brown. Separate/Unequal/Still? Reflections in Brown is the name given to a multidisciplinary community-based arts project that is the product of a university/community collaboration. The project, which culminated in a public performance, focused on the 1955 Brown vs. Board of Education supreme court decision, its legacy in Philadelphia, racism, and the continuing struggles for educational civil rights. The college students are enrolled in a “Field Internship in Community Arts” course； their professor is the artistic director of the project. A primary purpose for examining the college students’ experiences is to illustrate how community-based arts pedagogically functions as a social change process. Drawing from community-based arts, critical social theory, and border pedagogy, the study first defines community-based arts, and then outlines a pedagogical framework characterizing it as an intervention practice for challenging border constructions and for changing some of their divisive interests. The study illustrates how Reflections in Brown works to interrupt the college students’ habitus, and alter their perceptions of the world and their places in it. The study is also concerned with exploring the role of the community-based artist as critical educator and expands upon this aspect as well. Using a critical arts-based research approach, the study finds that Reflections in Brown generated a beneficial landscape of tensions and ambiguities. As process products, this disequilibrium had a catalytic role in reformulating the students’ perceptions, in altering habitus, and in triggering the change process itself. The study concludes with recommendations for community-based artists and educators； it also identifies and suggests areas for expanding upon this research.
Content-Based Instruction CBI) has become one of the most prominent teaching approaches in the field of foreign language education. The proponents of CBI claim that CBI integrates the learning of content and language, allowing students to use the language as a vehicle for acquiring the content of the lecture. It is also argued that CBI fosters students critical thinking and autonomous learning skills, while developing their motivation. Despite these claims that appear in a number of articles and books, very few reports are supported by substantial qualitative or quantitative data. Furthermore, there is no empirical study of CBI in Fundamental or Intermediate level Asian language courses. The current study explores foreign language instruction with regard to the aforementioned claims about CBI. The research questions whether CBI fosters students critical thinking skills, autonomous learning skills, and learning motivation more than a non-CBI or traditional teaching approach. Qualitative data were collected through surveys, and a written and oral assessment. Quantitative data were collected through interviews and class observations. The study monitored three sections of a 2nd-Year Japanese language course at a state university. It was quasi-experimental. One instructor teaches CBI and a non-CBI class, while another instructor teaches CBI Class 2. The quantitative data indicated that critical thinking skills, autonomous learning skills, and learning motivation either increased or remained unchanged overall in the non-CBI class. In contrast, they decreased in the two CBI classes. However, the student and instructor interviews reveal that the non-CBI class did not employ a typical traditional teaching approach, but rather, a hybrid model of CBI. Student interviews suggested that the balance of allocated class time between language and content instruction is crucial for the successful implementation of CBI, and substantial support or scaffolding is necessary to enhance the three domains.
Globalization, democratization and government education provision in East Asia (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )
How would globalization and democratization affect government education provision in East Asia? My dissertation conducts the first systematic statistical and comparative case study in South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong before 1997), Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. The statistical study covers all eight cases for the time period 1971 to 2003. It finds no robust effects of trade and capital account openness on government education provision, evaluated from resources, participation, attainment, and gender equity. However, comparative case studies of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand show significant effects of globalization. As governments in these cases adopted an outward-oriented economic strategy, increasing competition from the global market eventually pressured them to adapt their education systems to the needs of the economy and the global market. Common reform measures include expanding education access, updating vocational, science and technology education, administrative reforms and learning reforms. The role of the state is critical in this process of education upgrading. The states that prioritize the importance of human capital in their development model early and have efficient policy linkages matching economic demand and education supply did better. The case studies also show that the globalization indicators used in the statistical study cannot capture its impacts well. Democratization has been found to have positive effects on government education provision in both the statistical and the case studies. The statistical study finds that comparing with their authoritarian counterparts, democracies in East Asia have a higher per capita education spending, a higher per student spending as percent of GDP per capita at the primary and the secondary levels and a higher gross secondary school enrollment. Consistently, the case studies show that democratization is associated with expanding education access, redistributing education resources from the elites to the masses and fundamental education reforms. However, the mechanisms producing these changes vary by case. The civil society played a major role in initiating changes in Taiwan whereas electoral competition had limited effects. In Thailand, the main architects of reform were educational and bureaucratic elites in the 1970s and might be the civil society and democratic elites in the recent democratic period.
Choosing between private and public schools in Los Angeles (Education Papers posted on March 14th, 2013 )
Is it worth sending children to private schools? When private school parents are not satisfied with the schools academics, they hire tutors who can teach the children whats not taught in schools. At the same time, those who believe that the schools rigorous curricula put too much stress on their childrens shoulders also hire tutors to ease their childrens stress level and to help them maintain their grades. Either way, private school parents often spend extra money on private tutors. On the other hand, public school parents who have looked into privileged public schools for their childrens education are satisfied without taking that costly step. Los Angeles County has some of the best public high schools in the nation. The parents are given a chance to save their money, and the students are offered highly academic courses that are not too much different from the ones offered by private schools.