Tag Archive: Administration

The Analysis of Sun Yat-sen’s Theory to Distinguish Regime from Administration in Constitutional Effect (Education Papers posted on April 29th, 2015 )

Sun Yat-sen is a great democratic revolutionist and thinker in recent history. It is the Three People’s Principles that has become the guideline of the democratic revolution but also has played a very important role in China’s constitutional thought. His Three People’s Principles is the core of the constitutional thought and Principle of Democracy is the core of Three People’s Principles. That is to say, Principle of Democracy is the goal that Sun Yat-sen devoted himself to achieving with a series of original theories among which the Theory to distinguish Regime from Administration is crucial.He considers it necessary to divide the political authority into Regime and Administration. Making people enjoy political authority leads to limit and supervise the government’s rights. On the other hand, the government directly administrates the state and society by carrying out Administration. With the political powers, people own the right to vote, the right of recall, right of initiative and the right of referendum. In other words, that is to elect and recall the officials, initiate and make referendums on laws. With the right of administer, the government owns legislative authority, executive authority, judicial authority and procuratorial authority. The Regime mentioned above is the principal part of the state system for it is considered as the authority of people and running the government. Regime can be sorted into two parts: On the one hand, the authority of administrating officials refers to administrate the government officials by people. On the other hand, the authority of managing laws refers to initiate and revise the laws by people. His theory maintains the spirit of pursuing democracy. In the theory, he highlights the ‘sovereignty belongs to the people’. He considers, ‘people have the authority of administrating the government whose affairs have to be under control of people.’ This is the accurate principal for the relationship between these two aspects. As he anticipated making China develop into a Bourgeois Democratic state, Sun Yat-sen extremely focused on the relationship between people and government. On the other hand, he believes that every state must emphasize the strictness of forming a government and efficiency of executive but also fulfill all kinds of executive affairs undertaken by government accurately and properly. Supplementing each other, the two aspects illustrate Sun Yat-sen’sviewpoint—-ensure people’s rights and limit government’s authority. In addition, the twoaspects attach importance to that the government officials must be made up by specialists in every field and that the government must serve people as its essential principal. Undoubtedly, the Theory to distinguish Regime from Administration originally raised by himself to carry out Principal of Democracy is the crucial theoretic basis of Sun Yat-sen’s Principal of Democracy as well as the core of his theory frame. However, there are a lot of drawbacks in such a theory and the revolution theories based on it. Apart from this, when Sun Yat-sen put forward the theory, he didn’t analyze the Social problems including people’s views and Social system especially the ‘political tutelage’ had bad effects on the following political revolution. For instance, the governors intended to realize personal despotism rather than make progress in constitutional politics. The government forced people to improve their political awareness by means of excuses in order that the period of ‘political tutelage’ can be kept as long as possible. As a result, the constitutional thought definitely can’t be accomplished. However, the constitutional thought is very useful for us now.

The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration produces nec… (Education Papers posted on April 10th, 2015 )

The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration produces necessarily for adopting the real needs of development of modern western society. As the fundamental theory of public administration, it prefabricates the research on Basic framework and principles of public administration. Meanwhile, it plays a huge role in promoting the study of public administration theory and practice of government administration, even as a milestone in the history of public administration.The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration is a highly controversial proposition in academic circles. It wins widespread praise, and has also been questioned and criticized by many scholars at the same time. Through the academia criticism on the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration, these criticisms are rational. But it is unfair that the critics partly emphasis on the side of similarities of politics and administration, while ignoring the side of differences. Moreover, most critics of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration think that the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration completely advocates the separation of politics and administration. In fact, the voice behind the criticism implies a serious misunderstanding, because neither Wilson nor Goodnow ignore the close relationship between politics and administration. With the advent of post-industrial society, the boundaries of politics and administration are blurring, but this does not subvert the core value of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration. So it is early to assert that the model of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration is end. Certainly, the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration has its value and inevitable limitations as a product of specific historical conditions. It is a theoretical problem, and also a practical issue about how to evaluate the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration. This has a profound impact on the study of public administration theory and practice of government Management.Although China’s national conditions is very different from Western countries’, the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration still has signification of reference to us. Therefore, the draw does not mean to completely accept, the process of reference should always be based on China’s national conditions, and on the actual situation of China.

The Research in the Application of Motivation Method in Institutions (Education Papers posted on April 4th, 2015 )

Motivation problem is a core vocabulary of contemporary Economics. After longyears of development, the motivation theory has formed its unique knowledge systemand contains many schools, including content motivation theories, such as Maslow’sneed level theory, dual factors theory of Herzberg and ERG theory of Alderfer, processmotivation theories, such as expecting theory, fair theory, establishing goal theory andPorter and Lawler’s incentive process model, etc. Motivation theory is classified intodifferent types under different perspective of classification. This thesis discusses contentmotivation theory, process motivation theory and reinforcement theory under theperspective of Economics. Motivation theory is intended to improve the enthusiasm ofthe employees, so the motivation theory offers a targeted and practical guidance andoffers significant theory support to the production and development of enterprises. Thescholars of our country have also researched into the motivation theory. Their research,which is often in western discourse, is limited in the range of western classicmotivation theory. Without considering Chinese Social reality, Chinese scholars’motivation theory is of little Chinese characteristics and of little help to solve Chineseproblems. In the meantime, problems have arisen in the application of motivation theoryin Chinese enterprises. For example, people tend to think money and promotion are onlyways of motivation and ignore Maslow’s theory that people’s demand for socialrecognition and respect is to be satisfied after Basic needs are met. In addition,motivation by money is impossible to avoid marginal diminishing effect. There are alsomany problems in the application of motivation theory by the institutions in China. Thiskind of situation also exists in one exploration institution in Liaoning Province. How to use motivation theory correctly to provide advice and suggestions for the developmentof enterprises is the original intention and objective of writing this thesis. Taking theapplication of motivation theory by one exploration institution in Liaoning as a startingpoint, this thesis tries to analyze the application of motivation theory in the publicinstitutions, which is believed to have a profound influence on the motivation of staffenthusiasm of exploration institutions and on the development of public institutions inChina.The thesis consists of four chapters.The first chapter presents an overview of the motivation theory. Motivation’soriginal meaning comes from psychology, and in the later development it wasintroduced in many subjects, especially the Management which gives it a new meaning.Although different people give different definitions, among which there are differenceeven contradiction, the core elements of motivation is relatively clear. Motivation is aprocess to achieve certain organizational objectives, making use of certain externalbehavior to stimulate the motivation and desire of the staff to arouse repetitivebehaviors that the organization wants, thus improving organizational effectiveness. Thefunction of motivation is to encourage staff’s enthusiasm and creativity and realize thecoordinated development of organizations and individuals.The second chapter concerns an introduction of the exploration institutions which isalso called geological exploration institutions. The function of exploration institutions isto implement national and provincial guidelines and policies in geological prospecting,to provide prospecting administration, to undertake Basic and commercial prospectingprojects of mineral resource and environment geological prospecting. The explorationinstitutions bear unique features. In the process of development, the explorationinstitutions experienced a transition from a planned economy to a market economy,from Management subordinate to the ministry to localized Management and alsoexperienced the development of the trough and the climax, during which many problems appeared, one of which is the application of motivation theory.The third chapter mainly discusses the application of motivation theory in anexploration institution of Liaoning Province. This exploration institution adopts severalmotivation methods, which are positive money motivation, reverse money motivation,knowledge motivation, honor motivation, working process motivation and certainevaluation measures. Although motivation methods are adopted, there are still certainproblems in applying motivation theory. First, different units have different motivationmechanisms. Lacking effective feedback and analysis is the second problem. The thirdis that motivation level is not high. The last is that Enterprise culture is relativelybackward. The main cause of these problems lies in the lag in motivation consciousnessand the lack of professional talent.The last chapter puts forward four corresponding measures to make motivation theorywork well in the exploration institutions. The first is to grasp the knowledge of motivationtheory comprehensively and analyze problems on the basis of concrete circumstances ofspecific institutions. The second is to use motivation methods correctly, enhance the studyof motivation theory and attach importance to motivation mechanism to make a soundmotivation system work well. The third is to stress the combination of motivationmechanism and ideological and moral Education to yield twice the result with half theeffort. The last is to use system guarantee, institutional guarantee and supervisionguarantee to give full play to the motivation mechanism in the exploration institutions.

Study on the Management of Retired Cadres (Education Papers posted on March 5th, 2015 )

In a human society, the problems of the people are essential. The middle-aged cadres, as well as the young cadres, will turn into the senior ones ultimately, resulting from the natural law of human aging. In 1978, the system of cadres’retirement was established in our country, which is a substantial achievement on the reform of the personnel system in our party, an important safeguard of successful implementing the great reform and opening-up policy, and also a significant responsibility of the government. In recent years, with the growing group of retired cadres, the deepening reform of the domestic economy system, and the appearing aging-society problem, these retired cadres have become an indispensible factor for the Social economy development. Moreover, the administration of the retired cadres has also been improved. Previously, the working organizations took care of this kind of administration solely. While the current situation is that the society, the working organizations, and the communities working on a diversified administration pattern collaboratively. Under the above-mentioned background, as a branch of the government public administration, the study on the administration of the retired cadres has shaped into a study module and started to attract increasing attention, causing the establishment and development of the retired cadres’administrative institutions simultaneously.Based on the case of the Senior Cadre Bureau of Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, this thesis is focusing on the analysis of the retired cadres’administration in Shanghai through the comprehensive methodologies of public administration, organizational behavior, sociology and statistics. The purpose is to propose systematic, comprehensive and feasible ideas to the retired cadres’administration by putting it into the background of the government reform and creativity and combining it with the actual problems of the retired cadres in Shanghai.The first part gives the problems, the domestic and overseas current situation, the purpose and the methodology of this study; the second part summarizes the concept, the administration system, the administrative institutions and the administration contents of the retired cadres; the third part introduces the present situation of the retired cadres’administration in Shanghai; the fourth part analyzes the problems of the retired cadres’administration in Shanghai; the final part offers positive suggestions for improvements on the retired cadres’administration in Shanghai.

The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration produces nec… (Education Papers posted on January 2nd, 2015 )

The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration produces necessarily for adopting the real needs of development of modern western society. As the fundamental theory of public administration, it prefabricates the research on Basic framework and principles of public administration. Meanwhile, it plays a huge role in promoting the study of public administration theory and practice of government administration, even as a milestone in the history of public administration.The dichotomous thinking of politics and administration is a highly controversial proposition in academic circles. It wins widespread praise, and has also been questioned and criticized by many scholars at the same time. Through the academia criticism on the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration, these criticisms are rational. But it is unfair that the critics partly emphasis on the side of similarities of politics and administration, while ignoring the side of differences. Moreover, most critics of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration think that the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration completely advocates the separation of politics and administration. In fact, the voice behind the criticism implies a serious misunderstanding, because neither Wilson nor Goodnow ignore the close relationship between politics and administration. With the advent of post-industrial society, the boundaries of politics and administration are blurring, but this does not subvert the core value of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration. So it is early to assert that the model of the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration is end. Certainly, the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration has its value and inevitable limitations as a product of specific historical conditions. It is a theoretical problem, and also a practical issue about how to evaluate the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration. This has a profound impact on the study of public administration theory and practice of government Management.Although China’s national conditions is very different from Western countries’, the dichotomous thinking of politics and administration still has signification of reference to us. Therefore, the draw does not mean to completely accept, the process of reference should always be based on China’s national conditions, and on the actual situation of China.

The Research on Development of Chonqqing Communication E-government Management in Coordination (Education Papers posted on December 16th, 2014 )

The electronic government project of our country started in the latter stage of the eighties of the 20th century, At government information-based the constant quickeningses of construction speeds and government work and pays attention to the strengthenning day by day of degree to the electronic government, The electronic government demonstrates the powerful growth momentum. At different the development characteristics of periods, divide developing stage, government’s surfing the net stage , electronic government stage” metal working Chens”. Now, electronic governments at Management” become of our country the next step electronic government the in the center subjects of constructionses. This text is through analysing that the traffic electronic government of Chong Qing is in coordination with the current situation and question existing, Probe especially that advances the traffic way in coordination with Management of electronic government of Chong Qing, It proposes countermeasure to question that exist very probe into in the future traffic of Chong Qing electronic governments manage tactics who development be organized and implement in coordination. It serves the centre thought with citizen the electronic government must change to some extent at the structure , Break former to have and at functional department the frameworks of barrier between different departments, structure public electronic government network infrastructures, It combines different data resource realize and step region, trans-departmental, steps the level and even step using the platform in coordination of Bian Jie, Support the information integration, not there is not operation of chink government.There must be standardized support in electronic government construction, should especially give play to the role of standardized direction, In order to guarantee the realization with whole efficiency in concert and harmony on its technology. Construction Basic to work electronic governments standardization, it join and stand up organic business links, And offer technological criterion for working in coordination each other. At standardized coordination and optimization functions, guarantee electronic governments build and avoid detours, raise the efficiency, guarantee system safe and reliable. It is a foundation together with business of interconnected interflowing, information sharing to seek unity of standard. <WP=6>The electronic government information resources combine strategic emphasis that is China’s electronic government construction and key subject, It is the most important thing of China’s electronic government construction. Build a large amount of informations detached island that exists in course in the face of the electronic government at present, It pushes over and it rebuilds to be the very realistic all to existing and electronic government go on and it combines to be only the wise move systematically by information resources.Traditional to handle official business business it deals with to be individual ization, disperse and take, take artificially government bodies, The Basic demand that recombinated according to the government work, stand the whole of the government work, Need.

A Study on the American Pupil Transportation Administration (Education Papers posted on November 30th, 2014 )

This research focuses on the pupil transportation in the U.S., trying to find how the American reached the high safety in pupil transportation. Literature analysis is the core research method used in this dissertation.Chapter Ⅱ presents the brief history of the American school bus and its Management,defining three important stages (birth of the school bus service, standardization of the school bus service and steadily development period). On the basis of the history of school bus service, status in nowadays is presented in Chapter Ⅲ&Ⅳ.Chapter Ⅲ analyzes the organizations and their responsibilities.The federal governments establish the uniform guideline for the pupil transportation as a Basic standard to ensure the safety of the bus itself.The state governments finance the service and set specific standards through legislations. The school districts are the performers of this service. The market support pupil transportation through producing the buses and providing school bus service. NGOs get together to influence school transportation though more powerful voice and cooperation. National Congress on School Transportation is a typical program that integrated the forced in the pupil transportation field to promote its development.Chapter Ⅳ discusses the system in establishing a school transportation program. No matter the service is provided by the school districts or the private contractors, setting up a school bus service group, hiring and training the bus drivers, purchasing and maintaining the buses, scheduling and safety are the necessary steps. What’s more, safety Education of the involved students and parents is fairly important.Chapter Ⅴ concerns on the Chinese school bus service development and tries to find useful experience from the U.S. Despite the late start of the Chinese school bus service, it has made some progress in policy, practice and research. Based on the American experience, suggestions, including setting up the safety standard of school bus, establishing the transportation system, safety Education and encouraging the school bus research, are proposed to improve the pupil transportation in China.

On Administrative Credibility and Its Systematic Control (Education Papers posted on November 26th, 2014 )

The author thinks that the “credibility” essentially comes up from the ethics. Based on the decree of “human nature is evil “, we try to comprehend the administrative credibility by investigating explicit representations of the administrative credibility, while paying attention to its standardiz ation and supervision and believing in the systematic superiority in solving the problem concerning the administrative credibility. In the process of setting up systems, on the one hand we should know that the administrative credibility is connected with such concepts as Social Compact Theory, responsible government, legal state, peace etc., and that the administrative credibility is significant to the society; on the other hand we should know that there are complicated historic and cultural, Social systematic and public identified factors etc. in the current phenomenon of administrative breaking faith. Therefore, we should control the Administration in the political and Economic activities etc. by the way of law and hold that only if by the dominant effects of the outside systems and demos supervision can we perform effective systematic control over the Administration.The first part of this paper dissertates the administration credibility and its theoretical base. First of all, the author states his point of view by nailing down the status of credibility and in traditional ethics defining the concept of administrative credibility. The Basic requirements about the administrative credibility put forward subsequently is the further explanation on the concept of the administrative credibility. Secondly, the author analyzes the nomological foundations of the administrative credibility by connecting the administrative credibility to the concepts of social compact theory and responsible government. Finally, the social significance of the administrative credibility is discussed in the aspects of legal state, order, social credibility, Economic operation, political civilization, state stability. The second part of this paper discusses the representations and reasons of administrative breaking faith. The current conditions of Chinese administrative credibility loss are summarized as follows: fake administration, administration corruption, regional protectionism, covert operation, policy change irregularity, illegal arrearage. The reasons of administrative credibility loss are analyzed in the aspects of Chinese history and culture, society, systems, public cognition.The third part of this paper discusses the systematic control of the administrative <WP=5>credibility. Many systematic control presumptions are boldly put forward from the macroscopic systematic construction to the concrete systematic maintenance by advising improving such systems as supervising administration system, private right protection system and the governmental Economic administration function, government affair publicity system, administrative credibility principles and state compensation system, state civil servant system and the systems concerning administration contracts.

Research on Management Functional Division of Rural Public Health and Optimal Strategy (Education Papers posted on November 7th, 2014 )

ObjectiveRural public Health is an important assurance for Social stability and Economic development. The optimal strategy analysis on Management functional division of rural public Health is designed to aim at looking for these issues that the structure of rural public Health administration and performing function faced, determining who should take the main responsibility for rural public health administration and fundamental and feasible functional division. An optimal strategy is recommended for the development of rural public health administration.MethodsThe methods of stratified typical sampling and random sampling have been chosen. The information about function implementation of those main administrative organizations has been collected. Through individual depth interview, nominal group discussion, and the result of document study, we obtain main embarrassment in the process of administration. Descriptive statistics is applied to analysis the results of the questionnaire.Results1. There are at least 14 related departments of rural public health administration in county level. A phenomenon exists in performing function repeatedly and cooperating difficultly in a certain degree. Township Health Center performs the Management functions of public health in township level.2. The dissatisfactory Management functions performed by main public health administrative organization are: Health Bureau focuses on the functions of animal epidemic prevention and quarantine, authentication and surveillance of health related products; Health Inspection bureau focuses on occupational health, Environmental health and cosmetics inspection; The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention focuses on the major chronic non-communicable disease control, organizing health Education and physical examination on professional crowd; Maternal and Child Health Centers focuses on reproductive health supervision, monitoring of birth defects. Township Health Center focuses on supervising health Education that performed by the village clinic.3. There are three aspects of main difficulties lie in front of rural public health administration. (1) Institutional aspect: no root law for public health, repeated functions of administrative organization; (2) Organizational aspect: inadequate supervision on immunization, contorted reimbursement mechanism, lots of problems exist in the process of health law enforcement, unsound disease information surveillance network. (3) Mechanism aspect: the capital Investment on public health by the government is deficient in gross and unbalanced in structure, unreasonable distribution in human resource of public health.4. Public health products have several characteristics, such as non-competitive, non-exclusive, positive external, high cost-effective of input-output. All of the above characteristics determine the government is one who takes the main responsibility in public health administration.5. A kind of blue print is designed for rural public health to adjust its organizational structure:①set up Public Health Committee.②transfer several public health administrative functions of health department to other departments.③integrate the County Hospital and the Maternal and Child Health Care Center.④implement hierarchical management on the Health Inspection Bureau.⑤deprive of the supervision function on public health from the township health center.6. Basic administrative functions of rural public health go like this: the Health Bureau has 19 items, the Health Inspection has 7 items, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has 12 items, the County Hospital (including maternal and child health care center) has 8 items.SuggestionWe suggest that the current inefficient situation of rural public health administration can be changed in these ways:1. The public health and Economic development indicators in the performance appraisal of the government officials should be treated equally.2. The public health root law legislation should be valued.3. The coordination and cooperation among the related public health departments should be adequately functioned.4. The transfer-payments from the central government should be increased, and especially these funds should be distributed to grass roots and poverty area.5. The special funds of public health should be fully assured and be used reasonably.6. Allocation of high-quality management team.7. The health education should be organized continuously.8. The information management network should be built up quickly based on the current resources.

An Examination of the Phenomenon of Growth after Trauma and its Influence on Leadership (Education Papers posted on May 14th, 2014 )

Leadership development programs focus studies on the positive attributes and experiences of effective leaders. From this focus comes the next generation of leadership. This study, however, suggests that there is much to be learned in the development of new leaders from an examination of the traumatic experiences leaders face. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of growth after trauma on leadership. Using a validated screening tool to determine if a leader who experienced trauma grew as a result, the co-researchers interviewed leaders to investigate the phenomenon of how growth as a result of trauma changed their leadership. The findings of this study revealed that leaders who grew as a result of a traumatic event were more learning centered, more relationship centered, and more purpose centered. Given that these findings are also attributes of effective leaders as documented in the leadership literature, the implication of these findings is that leaders who grow as a result of trauma have the opportunity to be more effective leaders.