Amines were very important chemical intermediates and applied widely in chemical synthetic industries. Some of them were synthesized from the hydrogenation of nitriles.was a byproduct in the acrylonitrile production, and it possessed 1.0 -2.0% of acrylonitrile output, which had a huge mass every year all over the world. At the same time, It become a troublesome and urgent question in some area how to deal with acetonirile.Catalytic hydrogenation of acetonitrile to s was a potential process for both the utilization of acetonitrile and the production of ethylameines, and also an useful model reaction.Amorphous alloy was a kind of new materials with short-range ordering while long-range disordering structure, and as a catalyst, it was of higher activity, better selectivity, and stronger resistance to the sulfur and amine poison as well as less or even no pollution during the catalyst preparation and its application.In the present thesis, the four supported amorphous alloys catalysts, /SiO2, Co-Fe-B/SiO2, /Al2O3 and Co-Fe-B/SiO2-Al2O3 were prepared by chemical reduction. Their catalytic performances were measured by hydrogenation of acetonitrile both in gas phase and in liquid phase. The relationship between the catalytic performances and the structural and electronic characteristics incluing promoting effect of adopted metal and support was systematically studied by combining a series of characterizations and the kinetic studies. Furthermore, uniform sphere and 1D chain structure of amorphous alloy materials were synthesized by ammonia coordination combining ultrasonic wave and sulfur alcohol inducing self-assembling respectively, and their property of catalysis was evaluated, their mechanism of formation and relationship between structure and performance were also discussed.1. Catalyst preparation. Supported Co-B/SiO2 amorphous catalyst was prepared by impregnating SiO2 support with Co2+ solution, followed by drying, calcining, and reducing with KBH4. Other supported amorphous catalysts were prepared in the similar way. The Co-B amorphous alloy with uniform sphere and 1D chain structure were synthesized by ultrasonic assistant and self-assembly induced by surfactant respectively. All amorphous catalysts obtained were stroed in ethanol for use.2. Activity test（1） The of acetonitrile was carried out in continueos feed in fixed bed and in branch in an autoclave containing certain amount of supported amorphous alloy catalysts.（2） Adding a certain amount of Co-B amorphous alloy material with uniform sphere in an autoclave, the reaction condition of hydrogenation of acetonitrile at 3.0 MPa and 110℃.3. The relationship between catalytic performance and the structure of catalyst.（1） The supported amorphous alloys usually exhibited good catalytic performance. On one hand, in view point of the structural effect, this could be attributed to the unique amorphous structure （i.e., the short-range ordering but long-range disordering structure）, the homogeneous distribution of the active sites, and the highly coordinative unsaturation of these active sites and the electronic interaction between the metal and the metalloid in the amorphous alloy also had effect. For all amorphous alloys, the metal always accepted partial electrons from the alloying B, making it electron-enriched while the B electron-deficient. On the other hand, dispersion of amorphous alloy particles on a suitable support seemed favorable for improvement of its thermal stability and activity. Such promoting effect could be interpreted in terms of the interaction between amorphous alloy and support as well as the dispersion of active metal.（2） The activity raise of the supported Co-B amorphous alloy by doping Fe could be accounted for by considering its dispersion effect.（3） The supported amorphous alloys usually exhibited much higher activity than their corresponding crystalline counterpart. At higher temperature, the amorphous alloy catalysts lost its catalytic activity significantly, possibly due to the crystalline transformation from their amorphous structure, the deconstructure of the metal-metalloid, as well as the agglomeration of alloy particles, which cause an abrupt decrease in the active surface area.（4） The Co-B amorphous alloy material with uniform sphere had much higher catalytic activity than the traditional Co-B amorphous alloy material. The reason could be that the homogeneous dispersion of the catalyst particles and the accretion of the activity surface area. Meanwhile, ultrasonic wave enhance the interaction between the metallic cobalt and the metalloid B.
Amines were very important chemical intermediates and applied widely… (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Research on Dynamic Optimization of Industrial Process (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
From proper point, industrial process is a dynamic process, which means that the process state variables (such as concentration, temperature, pressure, flux and liquid-level etc) change with the change of time and space. Industrial dynamic processes are modeled with differential-algebraic equations (DAEs), where the DAE formulation consists of differential equations to describe the dynamic behavior of the system, such as mass and energy balances, and algebraic equations to ensure physical and thermodynamic relations.Over the past decade, applications in dynamic simulation have increased significantly in the process industries. These are driven by strong competitive markets faced by operating companies along with tighter specifications on process performance and regulatory limits. Moreover, the development of powerful commercial modeling tools for dynamic simulation, such as ASPEN Custom Modeler and gPROMS, has led to their introduction in industry alongside their widely used steady state counterparts. Unfortunately, up to know, little literatures give research on this area.One of the key issues of dynamic optimization problems is the solution algorithms. This paper is, therefore, to explore algorithm of dynamic optimization. The main work and contributions are as follows:1. The concept of dynamic optimization and it’s application in chemical process are introduced. The development and the current application of algorithm of dynamic optimization are summarized. The advantage and disadvantage of these algorithms are further analyzed.2. The traditionalis developed and two practical examples are illustrated. Based on the practical example analysis, the disadvantage of traditional is pointed out. An improved control parameterization method is then proposed, which combines two circulation method to improve the computational effect and iterative times with the approach precision guranteed simultaneously.3. Based on the analysis of control parameterization method, a novel algorithm is then propsed, where the variational method and two-point gradient are integrated.The results about the effect of the proposed algorithm on dynamic optimization problem are figured out in several classical examples.In order to improve the accurate of this algorithm , a adaptive -step algorithm is further proposed.4. For dynamic optimization problems with fixed boundary, a novel strategy named as objective-first is explored. Researches on several classical practical industrial examples are carried out, the results show the effect of the algorithm on practical industrial dynamic optimization problem.
Research of Mechanical Design Universal Supporting System Based on Internet (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Study on Psychological Intervention in Paid Blood Donors Infected with HIV (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Objective To design the measures and plans, carry out the plans and evaluate the effect by investigating the psychological state and influential factors among paid blood donors infected with HIV, to provide reference for implementing psychological intervention in these people in rural areas. Methods Ninety five individuals responded to the questionnaires in which general condition questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were adopted and some of the patients, their family members, community people, government officials andstaff were visited. Sixty patients having anxiety or depression were randomly and equally assigned to two groups. The intervention group was given psychological intervention of single measure. Before and after intervention, the intervention group and the control group were assessed for their self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale. The control group as the postponed intervention group was given psychological intervention of comprehensive measures and assessed for their self-rating anxiety scale, self-rating depression scale and support scale before and after intervention. Results (1) Of the 95 patients, 61 persons (64.2%) had anxiety and 80 persons (84.2%) had depression. The analysis on influential factors of anxiety and depression by logistic regression showed that gender, help available when needed, relations with neighbors, being discriminated and enjoying leisure walk were related to anxiety level and that gender, satisfaction with the help and addiction to playing cards were related to depression level. (2) The patients’psychological stress mainly caused by their financial embarrassment in life, children’s or marriage, bodily symptoms and discrimination from others. (3) The levels of anxiety and depression in the intervention group were significantly decreased after the psychological intervention compared with the control group (t=3.882,P<0.01;t=3.018,P<0.05). (4) The levels of anxiety and depression in the postponed intervention group were also dramatically decreased after the psychological intervention. The scores and the correct response rates to related knowledge were significantly enhanced after the patients, their family members and community people were educated. Trained people scored higher in psychology knowledge after training. Conclusion The psychological intervention measures, such as the intervention staffs providing psychological support to the patients, training people associated with patients to enhance their psychological knowledge and techniques, educating the public about related knowledge, increasing patients’ support, establishing community organizations to serve the patients, are suitable for paid blood donors infected with HIV in rural areas and will help their anxiety and depression.
Study on Training Public Officers Within Inspection and Quarantine System in Hunan Province (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Setting representatives of advanced figures is one of the frequently-used approaches with distinctive features adopted by our party to wage and unite the masses, to disseminate our national policies and to guide the work. It has been proved by practice that the models set by them take an effective part in developing our excellent ethnic traditions, revivifying our national spirits and inspiring people’s fighting will. Following the historical development of setting representatives of advanced figures, three periods has been classified since the period of Yan’an rectification movement, to be exactly, that are “the seventeen years” after liberation, the period of Cultural Revolution and the new era of China’s reform and opening. Based on the systematical analysis of advanced representatives set during the above four periods, this thesis not only analyze and summarize the features of each era’s representatives of advanced figures, but also gives an full elaboration of thefunctions of directing, cohering, educating and mirroring our development made by the new era’s advanced representatives. To the present issue that the effect of advanced figures has been weakened gradually, this paper is trying to give an explanation from the macro aspect such as environment and culture and from the micro aspect of the problems existed in the masses and setting representatives itself. According to the analysis and realization about the weakening, the concrete solution to the problems has been put forward through the reflection on development of setting representatives of advanced figures in the new era. In general, the representative of advanced figures can produce the best possible social effects and make contributions to build socialism with Chinese characteristics by innovating the publicity and selecting programme of setting advanced representatives, keeping pace with the times, meeting the demands of the times and conforming to social development.
Su Xuelin and the Traditional Temperament Theory in Chinese Literature (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
As the last writer grown in “May4th” times, with her own intelligence, wisdom and perseverance, Su Xulin had left a great literary heritage for the20th century Chinese literature. Herseems rhetoric forthright, bold and even sharp; her prose, essay and novel are full of interest, leisure, natural style and innocence. had accepted the deep influence of traditional culture, but, at a senior women’s normal school in Beijing, she also had accepted advanced and known about the new-vernacular literature and the new thoughts. In the collision and blending between the new and the old, facing with traditional and modern ideas, consciously combined modern thoughts, handing down and developing the essence of traditional culture, and formed a unique personal style. This thesis focuses on exploring and analyzing the relationship between and temperamental literary tradition, tries to discuss the contributions she had made in the inheritance and development of temperamental literary thoughts, represented by Yuan Mei. It also excavates deeply the integration and blending with Su’s thoughts and creations enlightened by temperamental literary thoughts, which aims at providing a new explanation angle for the formation of Su’s unique thoughts and her .The thesis is divided into three parts of exordium, text (four chapters) and concluding remarks.The exordium consists of two aspects:one mainly accounts for the research background and the significance of the selected topic, the other briefly reviews and defines temperamental literary tradition, which also points out the relationship between Su Xuelin and temperamental literary tradition.The first chapter of text explores and analyzes the cultural origin of Su and temperamental literary tradition mainly from three points of view:cultural environment of Su’s birth place, family circumstance and reading accumulation as well as “aspiration expression” trends during May Fourth Period. Thus, the specific factors that affected Su’s temperamental literary thoughts can be clarified.While chapter two expounds the essence of Su’s temperament thoughts to emphasize on the internalization and integration she did towards temperamental literary tradition primarily through three parts:”sparkplug disposition”,”respecting nature” and “childlike innocence”.Chapter three analyzes Su’s temperament thoughts represented in her and criticism in detail:the former mainly contains sincere straightforward emotions, leisure comfortable sentiment and fresh flexible spirituality. And the latter includes highly praise of rich writings of talent and feelings, emphases on personalized, original, straightforward critical characteristics.And chapter four principally discusses on the changes and transcendence of Su’s temperament thoughts. First, writing styles changed because of the language environment at that time and transitions of Su’s mind state in her twilight years. Second, the enrichment and development of temperamental literary thoughts are followed by absorbing exotic culture.Finally, it is the concluding remarks, which will sketch the thesis and praise Su upon her contributions to the perceptive integration of the traditional and modern culture.
Research on the Deposition Technique and Microstructure of Titanium Chromium Nitride Thin Films (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
This paper studies the deposition technique and microstructure of titaniumchromium nitride coatings and theirproperties. 45 steel and si patch wereselected as the substrate materials. The coatings were deposited in a Multi-Arc ion platingsystem. According to the concretely circumferences, the Ti and Cr concentrations werecontrolled by the changed position.The Ti/Cr-ratio has important influence on the morphology and mechanicalproperties. In the paper, the effects of bias-voltage、the Ti/Cr-ratio on the hardness、adhesion are investigated. The composition and morphology of the films have beenobserved by Scanning electron microscopy. The other characters of the coatings wereanalyzed by micro-hardness tester、scratch tester and AFM.The analyzing results show that the thickness of the coatings 、the hardness、theadhesion between coatings and substrates have compact relations to the bias-voltage andthe Cr compositions: the thickness was improved to the increase of the bias-voltage;thehardness of the films was increased to the improvement of the bias-voltage, and it wasdecreased to the increase of the Cr compositions. The adhesion was increased to theincrease of the bias-voltage and the Cr compositions.
A Finite Element Domain Decomposition Algorithm for Parabolic Equations (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Parabolic equation is an important kind of partial differential equations which can de-scribe many important physical phenomena. Difference and finite element methods are two main methods to get numerical solutions for parabolic equations. Finally both of the two methods convert to solve systems of equations. Usually the dimensions of the systems are hige, but high accuracy is still required. Facing hige dimensions and high accuracy, just singleis far away from dealing with the contradiction. Thanks to the parallel com-puters, the contradiction is alleviated. As an efficient form of computing, parallel computing is growing rapidly. Researchers have got many valuable conclusions[1,2].In the field of numerical solutions of partial differential equations, domain decomposi-tion method (DDM) is fit to apply parallel computing. The domains on which the equations are defined are always large area with high dimensions. By dividing large domain into sev-eral small subdomains, the solutions of the original problems can be translated into solving the questions on the subdomains respectively. That means large-scale computing is con-verted to small-scale computing which are independent. Because of the independence we can solve the subdomain-problems in parallel. The difficulty of the DDM lies how to deter-mine boundary values of the subdomains and the rationality of the numerical solutions. Be-sides of the above advantage of parallel computing, combining with finite element method DDM has high flexibility:firstly, local quasi-uniform grid is permitted,and the whole quasi-uniform grid isn’t in need; secondly, different discrete methods can be used in different subdomains.Most DDM is about elliptic equations and is iterative. If we use iterative methods on each time levels of parabolic equations, the computing scale will be huge. According to the properties of parabolic equations, we design algorithms without iteration which are meaningful in application and theory. Dawson, etc. have done much research on DDM for parabolic equations [8,11]. They use DDM without overlapping subdomains combined with difference or finite element method to solve one and two dimensions parabolic equations. In two dimensions, they made two difference meshes:coarse and fine, then divided the domain into two subdomains.Pay attention the coarse grids are just in x direction. Using the coarse grids they formed an classical explicit procedure to solve numerical solutions on interface points. After that, the boundary values of each subdomains are known. Up to now boundary values of each subdomain are known. Finally in each subdomain they use difference or finite element method to solve the numerical solution of interior points, in parallel. Because of the coarse grids, the stable restriction is relaxed toΔt/H2≤1/6. The order of error for the algorithm is:O(Δt+h2+Hh2|lnh|+H3)Thomee have made comprehensive exposition about finite element method for parabolic equation in . But the algorithm is serial, so doesn’t fit to complicate domains.This paper combine finite element method and DDM to solve parabolic equation The algorithm made some modify based on . We design a algorithm with non-serial structure. As an example, we increased two subdomains to four subdomains like “田”. The difficulty of the algorithm is how to design a procedure to solve the numerical solution of the center point. In this paper, we introduce coarse grids in both of x and y directions to overcome the difficulty. Details as follow:First step, decompose the domain with coarse-fine grids and construct finite element space on the two mesh.Second step, solve numerical solution on the center point. Using the coarse grid in x and y directions, we can get numerical solution on the center point by an explicit proce-dure whose initial iterative value U0 is given by initial condition u0(x,y) of the parabolic equation.Third step, solve numerical solutions on interface points. Using the center and bound-ary value, we can construct “implicit in x, explicit in y ” or “implicit in y, explicit in x ” procedures to get the numerical value on the four interface edges.Fourth step, solve numerical solutions in subdomains. As a result of second and third steps, boundary values for each subdomain are known combining with the initial condition. Then we can construct four procedures to solve numerical solutions of interior points in four subdomains, in parallel.In the last part of the paper, we analyse the error and get the L2 norm estimate.
Objective:hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(CAS)is a common … (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Objective:hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(CAS)is a common disease which is seriously harmful to people’s. The interventional diagnosis and treatment of hypertension with AS has played an increasingly important role in recent years. s are the objects for differential diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine( ) and the basis of treatment. So we begin to our clinical study from s.The study observe the peculiarity and the s of the syndromes of hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(CAS).And we analyze traditional Chinese medicine ( ) syndromes of hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(CAS) so as to explore the pathogenesis of hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(CAS) and the early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods:The objects of research are 195 inpatients with in the ward of department of TCM, Peking University People’s Hospital, January 2009-December 2010.All of the selected inpatients were divided into three groups according to the examination results of color doppler ultrasound of carotid artery:the normal group (IMT<0.9mm and no plaque),the Intima-mdiathickness group(0.9mm≤IMT<1.2mm and no plaque shaping),the plaque group(IMT≥1.2mm and/or plaque shaping).the collections of syndromes of TCM with the four examination and the clinical record of clinic investigation of every patient were Completed by experienced and specially trained doctors. Including Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol, High Density Poprotein Cholesterol, Low Density Poprotein Cholesterol,Uric acid etc. were collected from venous blood samples of patients. Statistical analysis using the Statistical software of SPSS 14.0.Descriptive statistical analysis, Measurement datas with Homogeneity of variance are described by mean addition±standard deviation. Count data were analyzed by Chi-square test.Taking risk analysis to study in relative risk odds ratio (Odds ratio). P<0.05 considered significant difference.Results:(1) Distribution of syndromes:The most common syndromes of the 152 inpatients in the group of carotid atherosclerosis (including the Intima-mdiathickness group and the plaque group) are phlegm-stasis(114cases,75%of total).besides,blood-stasis(90cases,59.2%of total), yin-deficiency(78cases,55.9%of total)are also relatively common syndromes.qi-deficiency syndrome. While the most common syndromes of the 43 inpatients in the normal group are also phlegm-stasis(25cases,58.1%of total), yang-hyperactivity(19cases,44.2%of total)are also relatively common syndromes. (2) Proportions of syndromes:The statistical analysis shows that the percentage of blood-stasis and yin-deficiency of the group of CAS are higher than that of the nomal group (P<0.05), while while the percentage of yang-hyperactivity of the group of CAS is lower than that of the nomal group (P<0.05), considered significant difference.(3) Combination of syndromes:The most common combination of syndromes among the 152 inpatients in the group of carotid atherosclerosis Patients is the combination of three-syndromes(43.42% of total).Besides, the combination of two-syndromes(30.92% of total)and four-syndromes(21.05% of total)are also relatively common, while only a few combination are single-syndrome or five-syndromes. The law of changes of syndrome-combination:the syndrome of qi-yin deficiency and the syndrome of intermingled phlegm and blood stasisare are the most common syndrome-combinations.so yin-deficiency or qi-deficiency intermingled phlegm or blood stasis are the most basis of the changes in hypertension with CAS.(4)Influential factors of causing hypertension with CAS:The relative risk odds ratio analysis shows that The syndrome of phlegm-stasis, blood-stasis, yin-deficiency syndrome are the dangerous deficiency-syndromes of the viscera of essential hypertension with CAS.Conclusion:(1)Phlegm-stasis, blood-stasis, yin-deficiency syndrome are the most common syndromes of hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis. The yin-deficiency and the syndrome of intermingled phlegm and blood are all the pathological changes of hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis(2) Hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis has different clinical TCM syndromes in different stages of development.The law of changes of syndrome-combination:the syndrome of qi-yin deficiency and the syndrome of intermingled phlegm and blood stasisare are the most common syndrome-combinations.(3) The syndrome of phlegm-stasis, blood-stasis, yin-deficiency are the dangerous deficiency-syndromes of the viscera of essential hypertension with carotid atherosclerosis.The intervention on syndrome of phlegm-stasis, blood-stasis, yin-deficiency of hypertension Patients should be important carotid atherosclerosis prevention methods.
Reflection on Curriculum Setup for Masters of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages (Education Papers posted on March 29th, 2015 )
Theof (MTCSOL) is the center and foundation for the professional teaching personnel.Constructing the system of Master of Teaching Chinese to Speakers ofOther Languages, is not only helpful to promote our country’s Chinese andthe diversification of graduate student training, but improve the application of thismajor. Moreover, its setup plays an important role in the process of Chinese languageteaching, exploring professional teaching methods and professionalizing teachingevaluation. As its development, we find that the reasonable setup is an effective wayto train teachers, refine the teaching forms and enrich teaching style, which willenhance teachers’professional development and discipline construction andeventually achieve the goal of professional personnel development.As for ’curriculum,we first need to clarify its significance and concept. The professionalization of theChinese international requires the curriculum be specified, therefore, itrequests high requirements for the Chinese international education curriculum setup,including the choice and organization of content, lesson plans, implementation andevaluation.The curriculum of Master of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages,is the core idea to set this major and a goal to achieve. However, there are severalproblems in the current situation of Master of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of OtherLanguages, such as shortage of key points, imperfect setup of the curriculum, lessapplicability of the subject, and too much theory. Based on the experience of that inour country, this thesis takes examples from other curriculum of professional degree,and foreign universities which have this major. It suggests that we should reduce basicEnglish and politics, increase the proportion of Chinese courses, foreign languagecourses, different cultures , major skills, and so on, in order to make clear thecurriculum targets, achieve the goal of practical training.The setup of curriculum plays the most important part in the talent training. Its scientificity decides whether it will meet the needs of the professional requirements ornot. Through research of academic thesis on the international education of Chineseprofession home and abroad, and my six years of learning, understanding, andreflection, the thesis summarizes some problems of the Chinese internationaleducation curriculum, and hope to promote rapid development of Master of TeachingChinese to Speakers of Other Languages.
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