TheRectification in 1975 is the result of “the Great Cultural Revolution” which developed to such an extent in such a given historical stage; of mutual opposition and struggle among different political forces.The Rectification in 1975 has its profound historical background. The change of political situation after the 9.13 Incident is the political prerequisite of it; Chairman Mao and Zhou En-lai vigorously supported Deng Xiao-ping’s resuming his post and pushed him onto the center of china’s political stage, which is the organizational gurantee of it; the masses’ strong desire for stability after a long time’s confusion is the solid mass base of it.The Overall Rectification in 1975 includes the following aspects: rectification of railways, consolidation of factories and mines, setting things right in the armed forces, improving science and technology, agriculture, education, culture and arts, rectification of the Party, etc.The Overall Rectification in 1975 is suspended because of the following factors. The Overall Rectification in 1975 tries to correct the mistakes systematically caused by “the Great Cultural Revolution” and negate it as a whole, which Chair Mao couldn’t tolerate. The guiding ideology of “Guidedby+he the Three Instructions” is opposed to the main ideological trend of “Guided by class struggle” during the time of “the Great Cultural Revolution”. It attaches importance to developing the socialistic productive forces, which is out of tune with the mistake guiding principle of emphasizing only on the revolution, not the production. The great achievements during the time of the Overall Rectification in
The Synthesis of Two-arm PEO with a Functional End Group and Its Derivatives (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is one of the most widely used biocompatible polymer due to its safety and non-toxicity for human body. PEO with low molecular weight used as drug carriers still had some disadvantages such as short circulation half-life in vivo. Recently, the research on the PEGylation of drugs had focused on the synthesis and modification of branched PEO, synthesis and modification of high molecular weight PEO, site-specific and releasable PEGylation. Among these, much attention had paid to the study of branched PEO, which shows smaller hydrodynamic volume and longer circulation half-life in vivo comparing to linear PEO with the same molecular weight. At present, branched PEO was usually synthesized by coupling linear PEOs with functional end group to a multi-functional core molecule. However, this coupling approach showed some shortages as long reaction period and complicated purification and separation procedures, that is the cause for the expensive price of this kind of PEOs and difficult production on large scale.In this thesis, a small molecular compound with two hydroxyl groups 3-[(1'-Ethoxyethyl)-ethoxyethyl]-1,2-propanediol (EEPD) was firstly synthesized with high purity. It was used as co-initiator with diphenylmethyl potassium (DPMK) to initiate the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ethylene oxide (EO) to synthesize two arms PEO with a protected hydroxyl group at the conjunction point. After the end hydroxyl groups on PEO arms were end-capped by benzyl groups, the protected hydroxyl group was hydrolyzed to get PEO2-OH.Afterwards, PEO2-OH was reacted with acrylonitrile in the presence of sodium hydroxide to get PEO2-CN, Then the cyano group was converted into carboxyl group and N-chlorosuccinimide for PEO2-COOH and PEO2-SC, and the latter can be used for protein modification. The functional products were characterized by GPC and 1H NMR in detail.The active hydroxyl at the conjunction point of PEO2-OH was reacted with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to synthesize PEO2-Br, which can initiate atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. Thus the star-shaped polymers (starPEO2PS) were obtained with two hydrophilic PEO arms and one hydrophobic PS arm. The three-arm amphiphilic starPEO2PS was characterized by GPC and 1H NMR in detail.
Studies on Microstructures and Properties of Melt-spun Al-Ti-Fe System Alloys (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
Rapidly solidified ribbons of the Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe, Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe-2.5Cr and Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe-2.5V (at.%) alloy were produced by melt spinning (cooling rate 105-106k/s). the as-quenched and as-annealeds of each rapidly solidified alloy ribbon were investigated by using XRD, DSC, TEM, HREM, EDS. A 71 Vickers hardness tester measured the ambient-temperature microhardness of the alloys annealed at different temperatures respectively. The measured region is near the chill surface of the ribbon. The could be estimated indirectly by measuring the ambient-temperature microhardness after the isothermal annealing at different temperatures. The paper analyzed the influences on the s and properties of the rapidly solidified Al-Ti-Fe alloy after the addition of Cr and V elements, respectively. The evolution processes of the phases and s of rapidly solidified Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe, Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe-2.5Cr and Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe-2.5V alloy at elevated temperatures were studied.The study indicates that the additions of Cr and V transition metal elements are beneficial to the of the melt-spun Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe alloy. The Cr and V elements can greatly improve the thermal stability of the Al-2.5Ti-2.5Fe alloy, which will provide the theoretical basis for the elevated temperature application of the Al-Ti-Fe system alloys.
Analytic Solutions and Smooth Solutions of Iterative Differential Equations (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
Nonlinear science is one of the most important topics in today’s sciences.The theory of iterative dynamical systems plays an important role in nonlinear science. The study of iterative dynamical systems involvess. They are differential equations with deviating argument of the unknown function, and the delay function depends not only on the argument of the unknown function, but also state or state derivative,even higher order derivatives.Such equations are kinds of new functions quite different from the usual differential equations(Retarded FDE,Neutral FDE,Advanced FDE)which formed a systemic theory.It has been used in many fields,the two-body problem in a classic electrodynamics,some population models,some modles of commodity price fluetuations and models of blood cell productions are given in the form of iterative differeutial equations.In this paper we study the and of two classes s.In Chapter 1,concepts and developpings of , and dynamical system,iterative differential equation are introduced.It provid the theory for the next two chapter.Iterative differential equations are quite different from ordinary differential equations for the appearance of iterates of the unknown function,which has affect the solution greatly,so the classic existence theorem for the ordinary differential equations is not applicable.For iterative differential equations whether exist existence,uniquness and stability like ordinary differential equations is a question which need to be answered.In Chapter 2(section 1)and Chapter 3,we study the existence of and the structure of such solutions for two kinds of iterative differential equations,we use the Schr(?)der transformation to change the iterative differential equation to another without iterates of the unknown function. Further,we obtain the existence of of such an equation by means of majorant series.We also use the Schr(?)der transformation,power series theory to disscns the existence of analytic solution for an extensive class of nonlinear iterative equations.In menthod requires the eigenvalues of the solutions at their fixed point is off the unit circle or lies on the unit circle with the Diophantine condition.In this paper,the existence of analytic solutions is closedly related to the distribution of eigenvalues of eigenvalues of linearized solutions at the fixed point.The convergence of formal solutions is very complicated when the eigenvalues lie on the unit circle. We not only prove the convergence,of the formal solution under the Diophantine condition(i.e.eigenvalues is “far from” unit roots),but also make progresses without the Diophantine condition(i.e.the converence is equivalent to the well-known “small divisor problems”).We break through the restriction of Diophantine condition and obtain results of analytic solutions in the case of unit rootαand Brjuno condition which weaker than Diophantine condition.Although there are many results on existence,uniquness and stability of continuous solutions and differentiable solutions for iterative differential equations,because of complicated computation for higher order derivatives of high order iteration,it remains difficult,to study higher order smoothness.In the second part of the chapter 2,we use the fixed point theory to give conditions of the existence,the tmiquness and the stability for higher order of the iterative differential equation, then we get the similar colusions with ordinary differential equations’.
A Study of Muffler Performance with 3-D Finite Element Calculation Method (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
Automobile industry has been developing very fast. And at the same time, automobile noise pollution has been severer than before. The reduction of exhaust system noise is the key to the reduction of automobile noise. At present, the main method to reduceis by setting muffler in automobile exhaust system. So calculating and predicting the performance of the muffler is of great significance and the work of this thesis is a practice in this aspect.With the FE software ANSYS, the performance of reactive muffler is calculated by the 3-D FEM (Finite Element method) in this thesis. The mathematical model of inner acoustic FE equation is established and the calculation formulas about TL (transmission loss) and IL (insertion loss) of muffler are deduced. On this basis, with highly-precise acoustic elements FLUID30 and FLUID 130, the FE model of two kinds of mufflers are developed under static state working condition. By means of acoustic transmission matrix, the muffler is being simulated directly and indirectly. The foul-terminal network parameter, TL and IL are calculated, too. In the end, through comparing simulation results and experiment results, it shows that calculated values coincide well with measured values. The simulation method is proved to be correct and calculation of acoustic performance of muffler by analysis software is also proved to be practical and expedient.Muffler theory, FEM theory, ANSYS application, double-propagation haphazard stimulation technology are included in this thesis. Some key factors such as FE mesh demarcation, establishment of FEM model and post-processor of ANSYS are also discussed in this thesis. So, important theory and project example of the performance of muffler prediction are provided by this thesis.
is a concept and an umbrella name of technical models as well, with essential characteristics of users’participation, sharing and interaction. It not only changes the Internet form, but also affects other fields. The concept and technology application of plays a directive role in creative design. In the process of creative design, users should be regarded as “recipients” of products, and more importantly, participate in design as “creators”. Taking creative design of living supplies as an example, through the method of literature research and investigation, this paper discovers many creative design of life under users’vision, and after deep analysis on types, motivations and characteristics of this kind of design, presents some problems about living supplies’creative design, and puts forward the issues that users’ individual requirements cannot be met and approaches are lacked to realize users’ creativity.In response to these issues, the paper combines the concept and technology of , and proposes a concept of creative design model based on Web2.0(called creative2.0model for short), so as to increase depth and breadth of users’participation in design from the perspective of Web2.0platform. The paper elaborates the construction way of creative2.0model from three aspects including localization design, work team’s formation and Web2.0platform structure. It then discusses the feasibility of this model from the perspectives of Web2.0′s technical applications and the content support of users’participation, based on which it also analyzes in depth the characteristics and applications of this model. Applications’research enable the model to refocus on practical solution rather than theoretical height. Through case research and specific process analysis, the paper firstly explains three types of creative2.0model such as collection of creative ideas, individualized customization and user leading design. It then proposes the concept of creative2.0platform from the angle of living supplies’creative design, and constructs the “IEAD-YUAN” website to provide a network platform for users with the function of publishing creative ideas and participating thoroughly in design.
Fruit and vegetable supply chain in China generates a variety of iss… (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
in China generates a variety of issues, which not only diminishes the enthusiasm of enterprises in each point of the chain, but threatens consumers’ economic interests and their physical and mental . The crucial points of research in risk control of fruit and vegetable supply chain in supermarkets are based on the disadvantageous factors in its operation with supermarkets as sales end. Its purpose is to improve the recognition of risks by enterprises in each point of fruit and vegetable supply chain in supermarkets, helping them recognize risks more effectively, and to take effective measures to control risks. In this way, it promotes the efficiency and reliability of the operation in the supply chain, and guarantees their quality and consumers’interests. Firstly, the thesis defines fruit and vegetable supply chain and its risks, concludes its traits and problems and classifies its risks. Secondly, from the macroscopic and microscopic view, the risk factors are analyzed in the supply chain of fruits and vegetables, by which the assessment system of risks is accordingly designed—to evaluate and analyze these two respects with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. According to the analyzed result, the two risk control modes are constructed, the operation of modes is expounded in detail, and the concrete control measures are proposed in terms of various risks. Eventually, the thesis illustrates two supermarkets as empirical in Jiaxing City, analyzing the risk control systems in the fruit and vegetable supply chain and verifying the feasibility of the construction.
The Empirical Study about the Rate of Return to Education in Gender Differences in Xinjiang (Education Papers posted on October 24th, 2014 )
As China’s market process continues to push forward, there is growing attention to their actions from the economic point of view, that is, more and more attention to behavior and cost-effective, investment in education has also become one of the main aspects. People’s education is no longer a simple concept of the consumer, but to change the concept of investment, which leads to the evaluation and measurement about the benefits of investment in education, to illustrate the necessity and importance of investment and compares to other investment projects, to achieve the best interests of economic man, education investment in education yields become the core of decision theory. A period of time, rate of return to education becomes an important aspect measuring the situation of education investment income, an important basis for individual or family whether to invest in education, a hot issue. Interestingly, many people committed to the research about the rate of return to education in gender differences, but they don’t draw the same conclusion: women’rate of return to education is higher than men’s, or men’rate of return to education is higher than women’s?With the process of developing the western region, the community is more concerned about the situation of education in the western region, and Xinjiang as a part of the development of the western region how its rate of return to education for men and women’s status is? So this article tries to access the situation about residents’education and income in Xinjiang in 2007 through the paper questionnaires and field visits, but because of manpower, material and financial resources constraints, selects 13 cities which have a dense population, geographical representation, and the conditions for issuing a questionnaire , and screens in accordance with the questionnaires’conduction of recovery and effective, and selects seven cities selected questionnaire data as the study sample data in this article finally. Then usesto estimate the rate of return to education for men and women, analysis of samples finding that the rate of return to education of women is higher than men’s in region of Xinjiang in 2007; And it finds the causes of this phenomenon on the basis of further analysis, according to data analysis it finds that: there is gender wage discrimination in the labor market, and the relationship between discrimination against women in the degree and the level of education showed is inverse, namely: the lower educated women face greater discrimination, and wage discrimination leads that women’s wage gap in a different level of education is greater than men’s ,and thus women’rate of return to education is higher than men’s. Finally, it proposes two proposals from the gender equity in education and employment, gender equality to the put forward for reference.
In many areas of study, such as the modern industry, agriculture, medicine,, actuarial science, biological science and reliability , the data for statistical inference and for the conduct of hypothesis testing and analysis, often can not be observed accurately. These observation data has been known either falls in a certain interval, or known to, be larger or smaller than a certain observation time point, we call these data censored or truncated. In recent years, the research of the censored data is paid great attention by statisticians, especially the research on the interval-censored data, is appearing in many area of study widely.In the study of interval-censored data, the study of regression model takes very important part. The statisticians make varied, effective methods of statistical inference study deeply and widely. However, these studies are often based on the assumption that the dependent variable is interval-censored data, while the independent variable is observed accurately. The conditions that when the independent variable is censored is not studied much by our statisticians. Guadalupe Gomez made great contributions to this area, where he has published a number of research results.Although the research on the explanatory variable for interval-censored data regression model is not much, such a study is necessary and urgent.This paper is based on Guadalupe Gomez’s theoretical results and trying to make deeper discussion. In Guadalupe Gomez’s papers, He had mainly concentrated on the condition that the independent variable was interval-censored, and the dependent variable was observed precisely. In this paper, I will continue to discuss when the independent variables are censored for a simple linear regression model, but expend the data type of the dependent and independent variables, analyze the situation when the dependent variable is right censored, then do the simulation test to verify the model.