Ma Changhai’s Poetry Class Theory (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

Ma Changhai is a famous poet of the Eight Banners of Manchu. The later generations pay close attention to him and classify him into Liaodong Group. Ma is fond of painting and poetry, and also he has plenty of works. His works are scattered and lost. Lei Xi Cao Ji is the only one which includes203poets.The thesis classifies the poets into six categories including the poetry theorizing poetry, travelling poetry, hermit poetry, friendship poems, eulogistic poetry and poems on paintings according to their subject and matter. Each category of poetry is distributed to discuss in six chapters.The first chapter discusses Ma changhai’s poetics and mainly focuses on its inheriting and development to The Thirty Song Poetry written by Yuan Haowen. In terms of inheriting, it discusses from the following aspects, paying attention to utility, advocating natural and emotional ones. In terms of development, it analyzes from the four aspects including putting the old and modern ones in the same place, advocating aesthetic diversity, making comment on poetry from the Buddhist point and attaching importance to knowledge. The second to the sixth chapters discuss practical issues of poetry creation, taking subject matter as standard. The travelling poetry mainly analyzes emotional quality from the aspects of the creation background, description object and emotion connotation. The eulogistic poetry discusses poet’s atheistic orientation which is based on analyzing the two categories and the main content. The hermit poetry analyzes the reclusion value orientation and discusses the deviation between ideality and practice, then further analyzes the reason of the two orientations. The friendship poems observed the poet’s Social psychology from the angle of his Social relation and cultural personality. Poetry on paintings analyzes creation orientation and present individual consciousness from the point of the two groups, poets of Qing and Ming Dynasty.Ma pursues innovation in poem’s form and content aiming to the reflection of real emotion and unification of theory and practice. All of these are up to the features of Qing Dynasty. Ma Changhai, as one of the representatives who accepts Han people holds important place in the history of Man Han poetry research.

Synthesis of Ionic P.N-hybrid Ligands and the Correspondin Pd/Rh/Au Transition Metal Complexes (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

P,N-hybrid ligands are known as one type of hemilabile ligands in which the soft P-donor firmly bind to the transition metal center for protection and stabilization while the hard N-donor can reversibly bind to the transition metal center. The release of N donor from the metal center can liberate a vacant site for the substrate insertion. The presence of the hemilabile ligand in a transition metal complex will significantly influence the corresponding catalytic performance. Hence, P,N-hybrid ligands and their applications in coordination chemistry have drawn much attention of the chemists in homogeneous catalysis.In this thesis, a serials of ionic P,N hybrid imidazolium-based ligands in type-Ⅰ hace been synthesized for the first time (1-6, Scheme1), in which each phosphorus atom in1-6is neighbored to the positive charged imidazolium ring. All these ionic P,N-hybrid ligands were fully characterized by1H/31P NMR, FT-IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction. As for1-6, due to intensive electro-withdrawing effect from the positive-charged imidazolium ring, the resultant ionic phosphines are featured with both a-donoting ability and π-accepting ability. In addition, the introduction of a different substituent at3-N position of imidazolium can synergetically influence the configuration and the catalytic performance of the corresponding transition metal complexes. It is found that the introduction of the substituent like pyridyl with the electron-withdrawing effect in3-N position of imidazolium can increase the bond length between2-C of imidazolium and phosphorus, giving rise to the possible formation of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, and the conjugative effect between phosphorus and the positive-charged imidazolium can partially transfer the positive charges to phosphorus atom, resulting in the electrostatic interaction between N-donor and P-donor.Based on the availability of the prepared ionic P,N-hybrid ligands, the corresponding Pd/Rh/Au complexes were synthesized (Scheme2), which were fully characterized by1H/31P NMR, FT-IR, TG/DTQ CHN-elemental and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It is found that the π-backing bonding interactions from the metal to the phosphorus are universally present in the corresponding Pd/Rh/Au complexes, due to the π-accepting ability of the involved phosphine vicinal to the positive-charged imidazolium. On the other hand, the steric hindrance effect and electronic effect of N-donor in3-N position of imidazolium ring can significantly influence the C-P bonding interaction and consequently change the geometry, stability and catalytic performance of the corresponding transition metal complex. As a result, a novel NHC-ligated Pd-complex of12could be obtained under the controlled reaction conditions.The catalytic performance of the developed Pd-complexes was investigated in carbonylative Heck reactions of iodobenzene with styrene. The results show that, the NHC-ligated Pd-complex of12exhibits more efficient activity than the other Pd-complexes including traditional trans-PdCl2(PPh3)2. However,12is not stable enough and susceptibly undergoes deactivation in the reaction process, due to the dehydration of hydroxyl of PPhaOH.The catalytic performance of the developed ionic Rh-complexes was investigated in hydroformylation of1-octene. The relationship between catalytic performance and the structure of catalyst was carefully investigated. The results show that the shorter Rh-P bond length in the Ru-complex can suppress the replacement of the phosphine ligand by CO, which favors the selective formation of nonanals in hydro formylation of1-octene. Hence, the ionic Rh-complexes of21and23containing the shortest Rh-P bonds lengths correspond to the best yields of nonanals.

Factors Influencing Consumer Purchasing Behavior towards Mobile Phone Brands (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of brand onconsumer purchasing behavior. Based on the Behavioral Theory, this study examinesthe effect of various factors on consumers’ purchase intention among Chinese andWestern European consumers. This study contributes to previous researchesproviding general understanding of the factors affecting consumers’ motivation topurchase cell phone brands.Mobile phone market is a very dynamic market which experience greatcompetition of brands and technology development. Due to the potential of mobilephone consumer market and its fast Economic growth, China has become an attractivemarketplace for many domestic and foreign brands. As a result of the changingenvironment, the young generation Chinese consumers are continuously imposed todifferent stimuli influencing their behavior. Consumer taste for brands and productsand particularly cell phones has become more sophisticated. Moreover, the effectbrands exert on consumer purchase decisions has significantly increased. Thus, it isessential to examine consumer purchasing behavior in general and the main factorsinfluencing consumer’s choice of mobile phone brands in particular.Despite the raising importance of Chinese consumer market, the existingliterature offers limited studies on the mobile phone users. To enhance theunderstanding of consumer markets a cross-national comparative study wasconducted regarding consumers from Generation Y.It is critical to gain more insights of the largest mobile phone user population, orthe so-called Generation Y. To do so it is important to make comparison between twoculturally different consumer markets like Asian and European. However, while theEuropean consumer market has long been subject to investigation Chinese consumermarket is an area that needs to be further explored.The study examined the effect of internal, external and product related factors onconsumer purchase intention. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test thehypotheses. Various factors were explored but not all were discovered to have significant influence. The results revealed that there are differences in the mainfactors influencing consumer purchase intention towards mobile phone brands.While Chinese consumers prefer fancy fashionable handset from reputablebrands that enhance their self-image, European consumers pay more attention torational Economic factors such as quality and price. Common factors with significantinfluence on purchase intention for both consumer groups are the product attributes,consumer need for uniqueness and trust in brands and fashion orientation. Examiningthe impact of internal factors, findings show that they have significant influence onconsumer purchase intention for both China and Western Europe. The positiverelationship between consumers’ need for uniqueness and their purchase intentionindicates that by purchasing certain mobile phone brands young consumers tend toexpress their individuality, creativity and similarity avoidance. These findings supportthe individualistic character of European consumers, but at the same time argue thatyoung Chinese consumers consider self-esteem needs as more important than oldergenerations.Furthermore, the research findings suggest that consumers from both samplesmake their purchasing decisions partially based on the trust they have in mobilephone brands.Chinese and European consumers indicated preferences for the latest fashiondesigns cell phones. However, the impact of fashion on Chinese consumers appearedto be much stronger than that of their European counterparts.The findings further indicate that consumers consider product attributes such asappearance and design, price, quality and brand name as very important whenchoosing between mobile phone brands. Detailed analysis described Europeanconsumers as more quality oriented and Chinese ones as more price conscious. Bothconsumer groups seem to acquire cell phones with new technology features, althoughEuropean ones showed slightly stronger affinity towards technology innovativeness.Another strong motive behind the brand purchases of young Chinese consumersis the way they perceive their self-image. Evidently, Gen Y consumers purchasemobile phone brands which reflect their self-image. This act of purchase may be related to the individual’s need of self-confidence or prestige expressed by thepossession of certain brands.Regarding the strong competition on the market, is not surprising thatadvertising has significant effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Targetingconsumers’ attention and brand awareness companies effectively communicate theirmessages through various creative advertisement campaigns. Furthermore, thefindings suggest that Chinese consumers form their final decision about which mobilephone brand to choose at spot of sale. Store ambience and sales personnel cansignificantly influence consumer purchase intention. All these marketing stimuliaffect consumers’ purchasing behavior by creating positive associations towards thebrand.Many theoretical concepts that were valid in the past are no longer sufficient toexplain consumer behavior. Nowadays, there are various internal and external factorswhich exert strong impact on consumer purchasing decisions. This study shows thatyoung consumers are observed to make more independent purchase decisions whichas well are strongly related to their psychological and high esteem needs. Thus, betterunderstanding of consumer behavior is needed. Based on the research results,marketing applications plausible for both consumer markets were provided.

Electromagnetic Interference Analysis of Distributing Tranformer in Subway Substations (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

With the continuous development of society and the increment of population mobility, people’s needs of convenient transportation are more and more intense. In recent years, as one kind of important urban rail traffic tool, subway developed rapidly. However, as a result of large-scale construction of urban railways, kinds of Electric power equipments gathered in substation. Substation became a complex electromagnetic environment with concentrated distribution of strong or weak Electric equipments.In substation, in order to give consideration to radiation limits, immunity and other factors between equipments, especially to avoid EMI between main substation and communication and signal facilities, rooms for electrical and Mechanical equipments are arranged dispersedly, or rooms for strong and weak devices are assigned separately, generally in different sides of station or in varying floors. In this way, land resources are wasted. Electromagnetic Compatibility-EMC research on Wuxi urban rail’s co-constructed equipments in Passenger substations is presented to save land resources and construction cost, which not only makes distance between equipments closer, but also keeps them work normally. This is a bold attempt and innovation in domestic subway construction.In this case, it’s meaningful to analyze electromagnetic environment in substation, especially EMI of heavy current equipments, which not only helps to deepen understanding of whole environment, but also provides theoretical basis of protecting surrounding environment and sensitive devices. Besides, it’s an indispensable part of the “EMC research on urban rail’s co-constructed equipments in substations” Distribution transformer is a kind of useful equipments, mainly as power supply for lighting and dynamics. Besides, in rough test, acting as a heavy EMI resource, the value of its field strength is great. Therefore, this paper discusses how transformer causes EMI and is finished by theoretical analysis, field test combined with simulation.According to EMC theories, this paper states the EMI mechanism in substations. And on the basis of Basic structure of transformer, from the point of view of transmission way, this paper conducted study from conduction interference and radiation interference, namely harmonic and electromagnetic field interference. Harmonic analysis is launched by equivalent circuit for technical parameters, Matlab for transformer modeling, and analysis of harmonic component. Electromagnetic field analysis is proceeded by three-dimensional simulation with CST, which is modeled with finite integral technique, and field test. Finally, the research’s value in Engineering application is put forward, so as to some simple protective measures.

Information Disclosure, Institutional Environment and Over Investment (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

The advance of China’s marketization drives the capital market development in China, which has enhanced the resources allocation efficiency. However, there still exist some serious problems, including excessive production capacity and redundant construction from macroscopic perspective, over-Investment on the micro scale etc. Additionally, the problems stated above would result in the phenomena of inefficient Investment and invalid investment. Therefore, it is of great importance to do some research regarding to the over-investment. In order to curb the growth of overinvest, we should analyze the reason that how the phenomena of overinvestment generated. Nowadays, the experts in theoretical and practical fields all make their efforts to do that kind of research.The listed company’s information disclosure is the connection of the investors and enterprises. That is, the information users can obtain more sufficient and necessary information from the high-quality information revelation. Also, the information asymmetry and agency cost would be lessen.Information asymmetry, validity of semi-strong capital market and agency conflicts would probably lead to the phenomena of overinvestment in the listed company. Although some policies of improving the disclosed information quality has being launched in Shenzhen Stock Exchange in2001, including marking the degree of disclosed information, the timeliness, relevance and reliability of the revealed information, the overall quality of information disclosure is lower. There are various market processes in various areas in China as China now is in the period of Economic transition. Moreover, the various market processes are shown in the form of government intervention, law and finance. This article is going to discuss about whether the government, law and finance development has conducted the information disclosure on overinvestment via a series of historical data in Shenzhen Stock Exchange listed companies. Thus, it can be discussed that the restriction on overinvestment during the period of China’s Economic transition. The dissertation will focus on the empirical research about the information disclosure for excessive investment under the China’s mechanic environment. Then, the main content of the article, research findings, brief limitation and prospect would be introduced as follows.Main contents in this thesis as followsChapter1:Introduction. The main content of this chapter is that background, purpose and significance of this thesis, and introduce ideas, method and frame of this thesis.Chapter2:Some related concepts and literature review in this thesis. First. define some related concepts of this thesis. Then, introduce and review the research from domestic and foreign scholars on Over-investment.Chapter3:Some Basic theories. Introduce some Basic theories about over-investment:efficient capital markets hypothesis, asymmetric information theory and principal-agent theory.Chapter4:Empirical analysis of this thesis. This chapter include deign and hypothesis.Charpter5:Conclusion, limitation and prospects. Enterprises and government can get some recommendations through this thesis. On the one hand, enterprises should improve the quality of information disclosure. On another hand, government may improve institutional environment, such as reduce intervention and improve the legal and financial system.Research conclusionThere exists some excessive investment behavior of listed companies in China. Making the cross term between Tobin Q and free cash flow as an explanatory variable and regressing INV measured in overinvestment activities, we can get the conclusion that the crossing coefficient of Tobin Q and free cash flow is-0.0425at1%significant level. That indicates that the sensitivity of listed companies’cash flow results from excessive investment. Moreover, the Tobin Q and free cash flow at roughly1%significant level will be positive, so there are some overinvestment behaviors in deed.Improvement of information disclosure can curb overinvestment behavior. It can be added three crossing terms based on the model in the first model. The result shows that the coefficient of grade*TQ*FCF is positive with1%significant level. Meanwhile, it indicates the improvement of information disclosure would probably reduce the information asymmetry and enhance the enterprises’ governance; furthermore, the behavior of overinvestment could be lessened.System improvement can restrain the behavior of over-investment. Similarly, it can be added three variables in the first model, for instance, the government intervention level variable, the rule of policies variable and the financial level variable. Suppose the result of variables intersected with the Tobin Q and free cash flow is positive, then, it could be indicated that the environment plays an important part in the enterprises’behaviors of overinvestment. The result shows that the financial level variable is significant among the three variables as the financial level variable intersected with Tobin Q and free cash flow is positive at10%significance level. Thus, it demonstrates that the government intervention and policies cannot restrict the companies’overinvestment; however, the enhancement of financial level could curb the overinvestment behaviors.The development of system can lessen the overinvestment behaviors. The sample can be grouped according to the various variables in the systematical environment. It can be divided into two groups, including the median level of government intervention level and the median level of law as well as the median financial level. Then, the three models can be regressed. The result shows that the lower government interference and policies level can greatly prevent the investors from overinvesting according to the information disclosure, which can explain the point that the development of system can lessen the overinvestment behaviors.The research of innovation and significanceFrom the innovative perspective, there are so many studies on the phenomenon of overinvestment from domestic and overseas.The main reason of overinvestment from inner perspective includes the analysis of corporate governance, debt leverage, information disclosure and managers’ behaviors etc. From outside perspective, the studies concentrate on the impact of the agency, analysts and the investors’ emotions in themselves. Although, there are many studies about the effects of information disclosure on overinvestment, there are seldom some researches on the topic from the difference of China’s particular environment. This dissertation is going to combine the mechanism, information disclosure with the behavior of excessive investment. It is better to select the disclosure data in Shenzhen exchanges and emerge the various levels of governance, law and finance. Additionally, my studies will analyze empirically on the base of the test proposed by Vogt (1994), then, it is obvious that the impact of the disclosure information on excessive investment can be discussed. Finally, the academic literature on overinvestment behavior would be probably enriched after the research.The significance of mature capital markets has attracted numerous investors in China. Especially, the development of venture activities makes capital market more regular in2009. Thus, it is more important to produce some supporting system on investor protection. The research will provide evidence to urge enterprises to improve the disclosed information quality, enterprises’Automation and legal environment etc. More important, it will make sense on the protection of investors’ benefit.The research not only provides the evidence but also give guides to investors, for example, the government should respect the companies’ autonomy Management, the legislative organizations should complete some policies to protect the investors and relevant authorities ought to separate the Enterprise from administration.Limitations and future prospectsThe limitations can be reflected in the following perspectives. First, the dissertation only focuses on the impacts between information disclosure, system environment and overinvestment but ignores the systematical analysis between two variables. Secondly, data resources just come from Shenzhen exchanges, so the data resources are limited. Thirdly, all the factors regarding to the topic cannot be discussed as there are many factors taking the effect on the overinvestment behaviors. All reasons above will limit the financial research outcomes.The relationship of the information disclosure, institutional environment and overinvestment will be discussed in the future more specifically. If there are information disclosure ratings in Shanghai exchange listed companies, the selected samples would be more comprehensive. Meanwhile, the research results could better reflect the facts. Finally, based on state-owned and non-state-owned samples, the analysis of information disclosure and overinvestment can be discussed under the environment of state-owned shares.

Research on Region Technology Innovation Performance Influencing Factors of Jilin Province (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

Economic development is increasingly showing the characteristics ofregionalization. It means that from a regional perspective, a regional economicdevelopment needs to be support from the outside region. Just as one of the oldnortheast industrial base, Jilin Province has unique historical features and advantagesin resources. Under the premise of the current regional Economic development thatexactly depend on the effectiveness of its regional innovation system, we should findout the key factors of the regional technical innovation performance in Jilin Provinceand improve the regional innovation performance to effectively promote thedevelopment of economic and the technology in Jilin Province. In order to provideeffective recommendations and measures for development of the regional system inJilin Province, it’s important to find out the influencing factors of the regionaltechnical innovation performance scientifically, then discover the key factor fordevelopment and constrains of Jilin Province. Mainly include the following:Firstly, this paper provide an overview of the domestic and international researchon regional innovation performance and its influencing factors, it is the basis of thenext research and writing. Then definite the core concepts of this paper, such as theregional innovation, performance, impact of factors and so on. At last, integrated andsummarize the theory of regional innovation.Secondly, according to the theoretical basis of the foregoing and summarized theimpact of Jilin Province, analysis and extract the key factor of technologicalinnovation performance; summarize the meaning of the regional innovationperformance; design the indicator data which can reflect the technological innovationperformance of Jilin Province; design the model and make hypothetical.Thirdly, according to the performance indicators, calculate the comprehensiveperformance evaluation of the dimensionless value between0and1with softwareMATLAB2010. To prevent one sidedness of the performance indicators, processindicator data of the impact factor, then use the SPSS17.0to do the correlation andregression analysis of innovation performance factors and performance evaluation value. In the regression analysis, the linear correlation of two factors (technology ofpublic economic enterprises, Professional and technical personnel and localgovernment fiscal expenditure) is not significant.Finally, according to the empirical analysis of the geographical and historicalcharacteristics, provide the advice and measures for the regional economic andtechnological development of Jilin Province.

Financial Distress Pre-Warning Study on Neural Network Model (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

Along with the global integrative Economic arrival, the market competition is more intense, each Enterprise in its Management, the market uncertainty and the risk the Enterprise faces is also unceasingly enlarging, at any moment each enterprise must guard against the financial risk and the crisis, the financial distress is the question which each enterprise possibly faces. Therefore, the financial distress pre-warning has become the important content of the modern business finance Management. The company besets with a finance crisis, not only crisis its own survival and development, but also bring the massive loss to the investor, the creditor. Therefore, the foundation finance distress pre-warning system, makes the forecast to the financial operation, regarding financial organs operator, investor, bank and so on, the related enterprise, chartered accountant and so on makes the decision-making to have the great significance, regardless of analyzes from which standpoint is very essential.The artificial neural networks mainly have auto-adapted, overflow, the misalignment mapping, the highly parallel processing and so on superior function. This article take the enterprise modern Management theory as the instruction, the neural network model and the simulation testing unifies, constructs indicator system which has the characteristic financial distress pre-warning based on the neural network model, attempts to establish a kind of the financial distress pre-warning model to be advantageous for the operation, a kind of the method which does not need to the financial norm to carry on the manual handling. This research uses the Matlab project software, carries on the iteration and processing to be listed’s financial data training sample according to the neural network algorithm, causes the object-oriented neural network the modelling and the sample study training visualization can realize, finally carries on the pre-warning ability examination to the network.This article is divided five parts of elaboration: The first part, elaborated the business finance difficult position early warning system’s selected topic background, the research goal, the significance, the mentality, the method and the domestic and foreign present situations; The second part, elaborated the neural network model and the business finance difficult position early warning system’s concept, the characteristic, the function frame, the construction principle and the establishment flow; The third part, has analyzed the traditional early warning system’s method and the flaw, the application superiority and realized the method to the neural network method in the financial difficult position early warning to carry on the elaboration specifically; The fourth part, elaborated early warning system’s overall functional design method and the procedure, as well as based on the ANN early warning model new idea, introduced the neural network forecast programming as well as the enterprise early warning system’s function development; The fifth part, based on the neural network method’s early warning system design and the empirical study, uses to be listed finance data which collects, through uses the Matlab software, in carried on the software based on the neural network model under to realize, and analysis proof which carried on to the business finance early warning result; The sixth part, the full text summary and the predict that elaborated this article major point, the achievement as well as the existence insufficiency, and will propose the forecast to this domain’s future. Empirical study’s result indicated that based on artificial neural networks’ financial early warning method is feasible. Certainly this model also has its own shortcoming, that is the financial norm is unable to use to be listed to locate the profession average index, if can take locate the profession average value as standard separate collection sampled data, then its accuracy is higher, its persuasive power is stronger.

Designing and Characteristic Research on the Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device is used in the hydraulic system of a major equipment, the device protects the hydraulic system. In this paper, in accordance with the requirements of the hydraulic system which used in the major equipment, refer to the existing structure and principles of the Pipe Rupture Valve, design the Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device, focusing also on the device’s test system and the device’s impact characteristics.1) The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device’s principle of work analysis and structure design. The device automatically switching when the hydraulic system has transient large flow, it works to drive off the main flow valve action by flow signals into pressure difference signals. The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device has an automatic cut off in addition to role, but also should has manual and remote control functions, so we had a new design principle.The device’s structural design including strength check and materials selection, this paper emphasis on the main structure and the main spool spring design which relates to the device performance.2) The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device test system has been made to test the safety and reliability of the device. First, the AMESim simulation model has been set up, and then the performance on automatic condition has been simulated , then build the test system. The test results verified the switching performance and sealing performance on automatic, manual, hydraulic three working states. The results of simulation and experiment show that the device can be quickly cut off the oil on automatic working condition, also manual and hydraulic condition worked well, and with good sealing performance. Analysis and research of the simulation and experiment results ,The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device test system can generate a large flow of high pressure fluid,and can meet the device requirements of the test.3) The Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device’s modeling and simulation research on anti-shock characteristics. Mathematical model and dynamic process of the Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device have been made, MATLAB/Simulink is used for dynamic process. The simulation results showed that the Fluid Rate Limiting Device can work well in the impact of the marine in indicators. Simulation model and results of anti-shock properties provide some reference to the Automatic Fluid Rate Limiting Device and similar valves.

The Fast Algorithms from Algebraic Sets to Monomial Bases of Quotient Ring (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

In this paper, we mainly introduction three fast algorithms which are fromalgebraic sets to monomial bases of quotient ring with respect to lex order : algo-rithm MB, algorithm of constructΔset, and the Lex game algorithm. Then weanalyze and compare them from the following aspects : basis of the algorithms,steps of the algorithms, complexity of the algorithms and so on.Let is a finite subset .I(P) is the vanishing ideal of P. The threealgorithms in our text is all begin with algebraic sets P, do not compute theGro¨bner bases of I(P), but construct the monomial bases of F/I(P) immedi-ately:or the index set of monomial bases:1995,L.Cerlienco and M.Mureddu first proposed an algorithm by meansof combinatorial method– algorithm MB.Let ;For 1≤s≤n, define following projection: is assumed to be emptysequence);With respect to the lex order of , algorithm MB is :Given a list: , determine an ordered set .MB1.[Initialize]Set (in the beginning the coordinates of all the elements of are zero)MB2.[Put the first i points of the list inSetMB3.[Find which coordinate of di+1 has to be changed,say di+1,s]Set(s – 1 is the length of the longest initial segment shared by Pi+1 and somepoints Pj∈Q. if s > 1,then in successive steps this value decreases)MB4.[Find the points that determine the sth coordinate of di+1]Set E←{j|Pj∈Q,πs-1(Pj) =πs-1(Pi+1),πs(dj) =πs(di+1)}.(E contains the indices of the points of Q which have the first s – 1 coor-dinates equal to those of Pi+1 and whose corresponding elements in have then – s rightmost coordinates equal to those of di+1. E is always non-empty.)MB5.[Assign the value to the sth coordinate of di+1]Set di+1,s←(1 + max{di+1,s|j∈E}).MB6.[Did you determine the first coordinate of di+1?]If s > 1MB6.1.[Find the points that determine another coordinate of di+1]Set Q←{Pj|1≤j≤i,πs-1(dj) =πs-1(d(i+1)) = (di+1,s,…,di+1,n)}.(Q contains the points of different from Pi+1 whose corresponding ele-ments in have the n – s + 1 rightmost coordinates equal to those of di+1)MB6.2.[Is Q empty ?]If ,return to step MB3.MB7.[Increase i]Set i←i + 1.If i < N,return to step MB2.MB8.[Done] Terminate the algorithm.The following theorem proof the correctness of the algorithm MB :Theorem 1: is a monomial linear basis for with respect to the lexorder of .Following the algorithm MB, some people proposed other similar algo-rithms from different angles.2003, Shuhong Gao,VirG’?nia M.Rodrigues and Jeffrey Stroomer [8] studythe relationship between algebraic sets, and certain Gro¨bner bases of the van-ishing ideal defined by algebraic sets. Furthermore, they proposed an algorithmof construct monomial bases–algorithm of constructΔset.The main basis of the algorithm of constructΔset is :Theorem 2: Let be lower sets. For any point a = (a2,…,an)∈Nn-1, letδ(a) denote the number of lower setsΔi that contain a. Then tomerge theΔi, 1≤i≤k is to form the lower setΔconsisting of all points(j,a2,…,an), where 0≤j≤δ(a2,…,an).Then with respect to the lex order of ,the algorithmto constructΔ(P) is the following :(1) Construct T(P) from P.(2) If n = 1, thenΔ(P) is {0, 1,…, |P| – 1}.(3) Otherwise, let the subtrees of the root node of T(P) is S1,…,Sk, andassume this algorithm has recursively constructed eachΔ(P(Si)). ThenΔ(P)is produced by merging theΔ(P(Si)), 1≤i≤k. 2005, Balint Felszeghy,Balazs Rath and Lajos Ronyai proposed anothersimilar algorithm by defining a funny game–the Lex game algorithm.Let W = (w1,…,wn) is an n dimensional vector of natural numbers. Wedefine the lex gameLex(P; W) as follow:We have two players named Lea and Stan. They both knowP and W. Stanthinks of a point P = (y1,…,yn)∈P, Lea has to find out one coordinate of Punder the following rules.First, she can guess wn elements of F for the value of yn. If she succeeds bygiving yn, then Lea wins and the game is over. Otherwise Stan lets her know thereal value of yn. In the next round Lea tries to find out yn-1 with wn-1 guesses.The game goes on in the same fashion. We stop when either Lea correctlydeclares one of the y1 (and then wins the game), or Stan reveals y1. In that caseStan wins. Of course the game will never end in a draw.Forβ∈F, letIf Lea could not find out yn in a Lex(P;(w1,…,wn)) game, then they continueas if they have just started a game.LetB be the set of coordinate values that occur in the elements of P . Wethus haveP∈Bn. We may always assume that Lea’s guesses for yi are all fromthe set B,The main basis of the Lex game algorithm is :Theorem 3: If n > 1, then if and only if thereexist at least wn + 1 elementsβ∈B such that .Then with respect to the lex order of , the Lex gamealgorithm is the following : 1)First, construct reverse tree U(P) from P. Then for (β1,…,βn)∈P,Pβn···βi corresponds to the subtree of a node V , who is on the n – i + 1thlevel of U(P). Sm(I(Pβn···βi)) has a shorter form SV .2)If V is a leaf then we set SV = {1}. Suppose that we have all thestandard monomials of the vertices at the n – i + 1th level. Let V be a vertexon the n ? ith level and suppose that its children are V1,…,Vr. Now SV can becomputed as follows. Initialize SV to be the empty set. For j = 1,…,r and foreach , letand put in SV .Then we analyze and compare these three algorithms.Compare the basis of the algorithms, the essence of these three algo-rithms is the same, but only get from different angles. Algorithm MB and theLex game algorithm are given by means of combinatorial method, algorithm ofconstructΔset is given by structure nature of Gro¨bner bases . Indeed, they alldepend on the following theory: with respect to the lex order, the projection ofalgebraic set and the variety of the projection of it’s vanishing ideal is the same,that isIt is precisely because the above nature exists with respect to lex order, therehave these three fast algorithms from algebraic set to monomial bases.Compare the steps of the algorithms, algorithm MB is by adding points,comparing whether the corresponding coordinates is same to get monomialbases. Algorithm of constructΔset getΔ(πi-1(P)) fromΔ(πi(P)); the Lexgame algorithm get Sm(πi+1(P)) from Sm(πi(P)). But in fact the main steps of these three algorithms are equivalent.Compare the complexity of the algorithms, the complexity of the threealgorithms is basically square-class, that is, for a algebraic sets consists of mpoints of n-dimensional, the complexity of the algorithm is less than O(m2n2).Among them, the Lex game algorithm is the fastest, its complexity is onlyO(mnk), where k = |B|. While the complexity of the 3M algorithm isO(n2m3). It’s easy to see that for the calculation of the monomial bases with re-spect to lex order, the three algorithms introduced in this paper is very effective.

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CATEGORIES: Education Papers

Study on Establishement of RPS and REC Market in Electrical Power Supply System in China (Education Papers posted on November 23rd, 2014 )

The Chinese government has kept attention on the reform of electrical power industry and taken action to promote reform, as it is one of the most important national economically foundamental industries and key part of public utilities. However, the previous policies for renewable energy development could not any more meet the emerging requirements right now, after the reform of the electrical power system in 2002 when the restructure of the power industry has been carried out. Therefore, it becomes a top priority to make the appropriate policies to promote renewable energy development.More and more developed countries are doing the fundamental research and applied research, in order to establish the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) as the leading reneawable energy policy or as supplementary policy, which can minimize the government’s involvement and maximize the market advantage. According to the practical experience of the implementation of RPS policies in developed countries, considering characteristics of Electric power industry in China, it is significant to carry out the study of RPS and relevant policies which are adoptive to the conditions in China as well as the reform of the electrical power system.This paper introduces Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and Renewable Energy Credits (REC) which is in line with the renewable energy incentive policies on status of renewable energy development in China. On the base of the practical experience in domestic and abroad, as well as the forecast of the Electric power consumption in ten years through SPSS software, it preliminarily designs Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) which is suitable for the electrical power market in China, as well as Renewable Energy Credits (REC) market by means of quantitatively analyzing supply-and-demand equilibrium, price mechanism and sensitivity analysis.Finally, this paper analyzes the benefits brought by RPS to electrical power system, as well as some possible obstacles in practical operation, and puts forward relevant suggestions for future study and policy making.